Princeton University Library Catalog

Micronutrients in health and disease / Kedar N. Prasad.

Author:
Prasad, Kedar N. [Browse]
Format:
Book
Language:
English
Published/​Created:
Boca Raton : CRC Press, c2011.
Description:
xxv, 365 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Bibliographic references:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents:
  • Chapter 1. Basic Facts about Antioxidants -- Introduction -- Evolution of the Antioxidant System -- History of the Discovery of Antioxidants -- Sources and Forms of Vitamins -- Solubility of Antioxidants -- Distribution of Antioxidants in the Body -- Storage of Antioxidants -- Can Antioxidants Be Degraded during Cooking? -- Absorption of Antioxidants and Its Significance -- Functions of Individual Antioxidants -- Antioxidant Defense Systems -- Group A. Antioxidants -- Group B. Antioxidants -- Group C. Antioxidants -- Known Functions of Antioxidants -- Current Controversies about Antioxidants -- Misuse of Antioxidants in Clinical Studies -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 2. Basic Facts about Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and the Immune System -- Introduction -- Oxidative Stress -- What are Free Radicals? -- Types of Free Radicals -- Formation of Free Radicals Derived from Oxygen and Nitrogen -- Oxidation and Reduction Processes -- What is Inflammation? -- Types of Inflammatory Reactions -- Products of Inflammatory Reactions -- Cytokines -- Complement Proteins -- AA Metabolites -- Endothelial/Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules -- Immune System -- What is the Immune System? -- Innate Immunity -- Adaptive Immunity -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 3. Scientific Rationale of Current Trends in Clinical Studies of Micronutrients for Prevention of Chronic Diseases -- Introduction -- Levels of Oxidative Stress and Chronic Inflammation in High-Risk Populations -- High-Risk Populations for Cancer -- High-Risk Populations of CAD -- High-Risk Populations of AD and PD -- Biology of Antioxidants -- Results of Clinical Trials with a Single Antioxidant -- Cancer -- Coronary Artery Disease -- Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease -- Reasons the Use of a Single Antioxidant Produced Inconsistent Results -- Results of Clinical Studies with Multiple Dietary Antioxidants in Cancer -- Results of Clinical Studies with Fat and Fiber -- Using Multiple Micronutrients with a Low-Fat, High-Fiber Diet to Reduce the Risk and Progression of Chronic Diseases -- Recommended Micronutrients for Reducing the Risk and Progression of Chronic Diseases -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 4. Micronutrients in Healthy Aging -- Introduction -- Oxidative Stress during Aging -- Sources of Oxidative Stress -- Influence of Environmental, Dietary, Metabolic, and Lifestyle-Related Stressors on Oxidative Stress -- Oxidative Stress Influences Mitochondria, Lysosome, and Proteasome Function during Aging -- Mitochondrial Dysfunction -- Impairment of Proteasome and Lysosomal-Mediated Proteolytic Activities -- Oxidative Stress Influences the Length of Telomere during Aging -- Chronic Inflammation during Aging -- Aging Influences Immune Function -- Aging Influencing Antioxidant Defense Systems -- Antioxidant Enzymes -- Changes in Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Animals -- Changes in Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Humans -- Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants Levels -- Vitamin C -- Glutathione -- Vitamin E -- Coenzyme Q10 -- Antioxidant Supplementation Influences Age-Related Functional Deficits -- Vitamin E -- Coenzyme Q10 -- Carotenoids -- Melatonin -- Flavonoids -- Glutathione and N-Acetylcysteine -- Alpha-Lipoic Acid -- Multiple Dietary Antioxidants -- Rationale for Not Using a Single Dietary Antioxidant to Reduce Age-Related Functional Deficits -- Rationale for Recommending Multiple Micronutrients to Reduce the Rate of Aging -- Recommended Micronutrients for Adults and Children -- Changes in Diet and Lifestyle -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 5. Role of Micronutrients in the Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease and Improvement of the Standard Therapy -- Introduction -- Incidence and Cost -- Primary Risk Factors and Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in CAD -- Consequences of Increased Oxidative Stress and Chronic Inflammation -- Low-Dose Aspirin in CAD -- Role of Antioxidants in CAD -- Animal Studies after Treatment with Antioxidants -- Epidemiologic Studies with Antioxidants -- Intervention Human Studies after Treatment with One or More Dietary Antioxidants -- Vitamin E Alone Producing Beneficial Effects -- Vitamin C Alone Producing Beneficial Effects -- Dietary Antioxidants Producing No Effects or Adverse Effects -- Endogenous Antioxidants Producing No Effect or Beneficial Effects -- Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants with Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs -- Multiple Dietary Antioxidants with Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs -- Resveratrol and Omega-3 Fatty Acids -- Resveratrol -- Omega-3 Fatty Acids -- Intervention Studies with B-Vitamins to Lower Homocysteine Levels -- Scientific Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients Including Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants in Prevention and Improved Treatment of CAD -- Proposed Multiple Micronutrient Preparation -- Importance of Dose Schedule -- Antioxidants and Aspirin Resistance -- Scientific Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrient Preparations in Combination with Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs and Aspirin for Reducing the Progression of CAD -- Modifications in Diet and Lifestyle -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 6. Micronutrients for the Prevention of Diabetes and Improvement of the Standard Therapy -- Introduction -- Incidence and Cost -- Types of Diabetes -- Type 1. Diabetes -- Type 2. Diabetes -- Gestational Diabetes -- Other Types of Diabetes -- Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome -- Complications of Diabetes -- Evidence for Increased Oxidative Stress in Diabetes -- Type 1. Diabetes -- Type 2. Diabetes -- Metabolic Syndrome -- Evidence for Increased Chronic Inflammation in Diabetes -- Beneficial Effects of Antioxidants and Other Nutrients in Diabetes -- Vitamin A -- Vitamin C -- Vitamin D -- Vitamin E -- Alpha-Lipoic Acid -- N-Acetylcysteine -- L-Carnitine -- Coenzyme Q10 -- Antioxidant Mixtures -- Vitamin A and Insulin -- Folic Acid and Thiamine -- Chromium -- Antioxidants in Combination with Diabetic/Cardiovascular Drugs and/or Insulin -- Omega-3 Fatty Acids -- Animal Studies -- Human Epidemiologic Studies with Omega-3 Fatty Acids -- Human Intervention Studies with Omega-3 Fatty Acids Alone -- Human Studies with Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Antidiabetic Drugs and Heart Medications -- Treatments of Diabetes -- Standard Treatments -- Aspirin -- Aspirin Resistance -- Animal Studies with Aspirin -- Problems Associated with Using a Single Agent in Diabetic Patients -- Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in Diabetic Patients -- Recommended Micronutrient Supplement for the Prevention of Diabetes in High-Risk Populations -- Recommended Micronutrient Supplement in Combination with Standard Therapy in Diabetic Patients -- Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for Prediabetic Individuals and Diabetic Patients -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 7. Micronutrients in Cancer Prevention -- Introduction -- Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Cost -- Proposed Stages of Human Carcinogenesis -- Diagrammatic Representation of the Proposed Stages of Human Carcinogenesis -- Some Examples of Tumor Initiators and Tumor Promoters -- Contribution of Environmental, Dietary, and Lifestyle-Related Factors -- Some Examples of Lifestyle-Related Carcinogens -- Some Examples of Environment-Related Carcinogens -- Some Examples of Diet-Related Carcinogens -- Some Examples of Diet-Related Cancer Protective Agents -- Functions of Antioxidants Relevant to Cancer Prevention -- Analysis of Cell Cultures after Treatment with Antioxidants -- Analysis of Cancer Prevention Studies in Animals after Treatment with Antioxidants -- Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies on Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention -- Analysis of Intervention Studies on Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention -- Cancer Risk in Heavy Tobacco Smokers after Treatment with a Single Dietary Antioxidant --
  • Other Cancer Risks after Treatment with a Single Dietary Antioxidant -- Cancer Risk after Treatment with Multiple Dietary Antioxidants -- Cancer Risk after Treatment with Vitamin D and Calcium -- Cancer Risk after Treatment with Folate and B-Vitamins -- Cancer Risk after Treatment with Fat and Fiber -- Cancer Risk after Treatment with NSAIDs -- Proposed Cancer Prevention Strategies -- Recommendations for Cancer-Free Normal Individuals -- Recommendations for Cancer-Free High-Risk Individuals -- Recommendations for Cancer Survivors -- Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for Individuals of High-Risk Populations -- Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in Proposed Cancer Preventive Strategy -- Unique Features of Proposed Micronutrient Formulation -- Toxicity of Micronutrients -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 8. Micronutrients for Improvement of the Standard Therapy in Cancer -- Introduction -- Preventive and Therapeutic Dose Ranges of Antioxidants -- Recommendation by Oncologists and Use of Antioxidants by Their Patients -- Effects of Therapeutic Doses of Individual Antioxidants on Growth of Cancer and Normal Cells -- Vitamin E and Its Derivatives -- Vitamin C -- Combination of Vitamin C or Vitamin E with Other Agents -- Vitamin A and Carotenoids -- Selenium -- Mixture of Dietary Antioxidants -- NAC and Alpha-Lipoic Acid -- Coenzyme Q10 -- Antioxidant Enzymes -- Treatment Schedules -- Effects of Therapeutic Doses of Individual Antioxidants on Gene Expression Profiles in Cancer Cells -- Effects of Preventive Doses of Individual Antioxidants on Cancer Cell Growth -- Effects of Therapeutic Doses of Individual Antioxidants on Radiation-Induced Damage in Cancer Cells and Normal Cells -- Cell Culture Studies -- Animal Studies -- Clinical Studies -- Effects of Therapeutic Doses of Individual Antioxidants on Chemotherapeutic Agent-Induced Damage in Cancer Cells and Normal Cells -- Cell Culture Studies -- Animal Studies -- Clinical Studies -- Glutathione-Elevating Agents (NAC and Alpha-Lipoic Acid) -- Coenzyme Q10 -- Vitamin E -- Selenium -- Glutamine -- Mechanisms of Enhancing the Efficacy of Standard Therapy on Cancer Cells by Therapeutic Doses of Individual Antioxidants -- Clinical Studies with Multiple Dietary Antioxidants -- Rational for Using Multiple Micronutrients -- Rationale for Not Recommending Antioxidant Supplements during Standard Therapy -- Preventive Doses of Individual Antioxidants Reduce the Efficacy of Cancer Therapeutic Agents -- Utilization of Data Obtained from the Use of Preventive Doses of Individual Antioxidants in High-Risk Populations -- Utilization of Data Obtained from the Use of Antioxidant Deficiency in Combination with Therapeutic Agents on Cancer Cells -- Effects of Therapeutic Doses of Individual Antioxidants in Combination with Experimental Cancer Therapies on Cancer Cells -- Hyperthermia -- Sodium Butyrate and Interferon-Alpha2b -- Cellular Vaccine -- Gene Therapy -- Proposed Micronutrient Protocols -- AMTP Using Therapeutic Doses of Multiple Antioxidants -- Preventive Micronutrient Protocol Using Preventive Doses of Multiple Antioxidants -- Recommendations for Diet and Lifestyle Modifications -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 9. Micronutrients in the Prevention and Improvement of the Standard Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease -- Introduction -- Incidence and Cost -- Etiology of AD -- Neuropathology of AD -- Increased Oxidative Stress in AD -- Sources of Free Radicals in Normal Brain -- Formation of Free Radicals Derived from Oxygen and Nitrogen -- Oxidative Stress-Induced Mitochondrial Damage in AD -- Beta-Amyloid Mediates Its Neurotoxic Effects through Free Radicals in AD -- Cholesterol-Induced Generation of Beta-Amyloid -- Proteasome Inhibition Induced Neurodegeneration in AD -- Genetic Defects in Idiopathic AD -- Mutated Genes Mediate their Effects through Increased Production of Beta-Amyloid in Familial AD -- Increased Levels of Markers of Chronic Inflammation in AD -- Neuroglobin in AD -- Current Treatments of AD -- Laboratory and Clinical Studies with Antioxidants in AD -- Alpha-Lipoic Acid -- Coenzyme Q10 and Melatonin -- Nicotinamide, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+), and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Dehydrogenase (NADH) -- Vitamin A, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C -- Serum Levels of Dietary Antioxidants -- B-Vitamins -- Resveratrol -- Ginkgo biloba and Omega-3 Fatty Acids -- Green Tea Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and Caffeine -- Problems with Using a Single Nutrient in AD -- Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in AD -- Rationale for Using NSAIDs in AD Prevention -- Recommended Micronutrients in Combination with Low-Doses of NSAIDs for Prevention of AD in High-Risk Populations -- Rationale for Using Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors in the Treatment of AD -- Recommended Micronutrients and Low-Dose NSAIDs with Standard Therapy in Patients with Dementia -- Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for AD -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 10. Micronutrients for the Prevention and Improvement of the Standard Therapy for Parkinson's Disease -- Introduction -- Incidence and Cost -- Etiology -- Neuropathology and Symptoms -- Genetics of PD -- DJ-1 Gene -- Alpha-Synuclein Gene -- PTEN-Induced Putative Kinase 1 -- Increased Oxidative Stress in PD -- Increased Inflammation in PD -- Mitochondrial Dysfunction in PD -- Laboratory and Human Studies in PD with Antioxidants -- In Vitro Studies -- Studies in Animal Models of PD -- Studies in Human PD -- Problems of Using a Single Antioxidant in PD -- Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in PD -- Rationale for Using an NSAID in PD Prevention -- Recommended Micronutrient Supplement for Use in Combination with a Low-Dose NSAID for the Prevention of PD in High-Risk Populations -- Recommended Micronutrient Supplement for Use in Combination with a Low-Dose NSAID for Reducing the Rate of Progression of PD in Early-Stage Patients -- Current Treatments of PD -- Rationale for Using a Micronutrient Supplement and an NSAID in Combination with Standard Therapy in PD Patients -- Recommended Micronutrient Supplement and Low-Dose NSAID in Combination with Standard Therapy in PD Patients -- Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for PD -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 11. Micronutrients in Prevention and Improvement of the Standard Therapy in Hearing Disorders -- Introduction -- Incidence and Cost -- Types of Hearing Disorders -- Conductive Hearing Loss -- Sensorineural Hearing Loss -- Tinnitus -- Meniere's Disease -- Agents or Conditions Causing Hearing Disorders -- Measurements of Hearing Loss -- Current Prevention and Treatment Strategies -- Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Hearing Disorders -- Involvement of Inflammation in Hearing Disorders -- Beneficial Effects of Antioxidants in Hearing Disorders -- Animal Studies -- Human Studies -- Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in Hearing Disorders -- Proposed Micronutrient Recommendation for Prevention and Improved Treatment of Hearing Disorders -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 12. Micronutrients in Improvement of the Standard Therapy in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -- Introduction -- Incidence and Cost of PTSD -- Symptoms of PTSD -- Biochemical Events in PTSD -- Increased Oxidative Stress in PTSD -- Chronic Inflammation in PTSD -- Release of Glutamate in PTSD -- Standard Therapy in PTSD -- Rationale for Using Micronutrients in PTSD -- Problems of Using a Single Micronutrient in PTSD -- Rationale for Recommending Multiple Micronutrients Including Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants in PTSD -- Recommended Micronutrients for Reducing the Risk of PTSD in High-Risk Populations -- Recommended Micronutrients in Combination with Standard Therapy in PTSD -- Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for PTSD -- Conclusions -- References --
  • Chapter 13. Micronutrients in Improvement of the Standard Therapy in Traumatic Brain Injury -- Introduction -- Causes of TBI -- Incidence and Cost of TBI -- U.S. Troops -- U.S. Civilians -- Symptoms and Consequences of TBI -- Symptoms and Consequences of Concussive Injury -- Risk of Posttraumatic Disorder Associated with TBI -- Biochemical Events that Contribute to the Progression of Damage Following TBI -- Evidence for Increased Oxidative Stress in TBI -- Mitochondrial Dysfunction in TBI -- Evidence for Increased Levels of Markers of Inflammation in TBI -- Evidence for Increased Release of Glutamate in TBI -- Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in TBI -- Treatments of TBI -- Treatments of Sports-Related Concussive Injury -- Treatments of TBI with Antioxidants -- Antioxidants Reduce Glutamate Release -- Problems of Using a Single Agent in TBI -- Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in TBI -- Recommended Micronutrients for Reducing the Late Adverse Effects in High-Risk Populations -- Recommended Micronutrient Supplement in Combination with Standard Therapy in TBI Patients with Penetrating Head Injury -- Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for TBI -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 14. Micronutrients in Prevention and Improvement of the Standard Therapy in HIV/AIDS -- Introduction -- History, Incidence, and Cost of HIV/AIDS -- Role of Immune Function in HIV Infection -- Micronutrient Deficiency Impairs Immune Function -- Illicit Drugs Impair Immune Function -- Increased Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Enhance the Risk and Progression of HIV Infection -- Current and Proposed Prevention Strategies for HIV Infection -- Primary Prevention -- Secondary Prevention -- Evidence for Micronutrients Reducing Progression of HIV Infection -- Current Treatments of HIV/AIDS -- Role of Micronutrients in Combination with Antiviral Drugs -- Rationale for Using Multiple Micronutrients in Primary and Secondary Prevention of HIV Infection -- Recommended Micronutrients for Primary and Secondary Prevention of HIV Infection -- Recommended Micronutrients for Improving the Efficacy of Antiviral Therapy -- Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 15. Micronutrients in Protecting Against Late Adverse Health Effects of Diagnostic Radiation Doses -- Introduction -- Probable Biochemical and Genetic Steps Involved in Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis -- Interactions between Radiation and Chemical and Biological Carcinogens and Tumor Promoters -- Risk Estimates of Radiation-Induced Cancer -- Risk of Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Non-Neoplastic Diseases.
Subject(s):
ISBN:
  • 9781439821060 (alk. paper)
  • 1439821062 (alk. paper)
LCCN:
2010010721
OCLC:
559647374
RCP:
C - S