Princeton University Library Catalog

Air pollution : health and environmental impacts / edited by Bhola R. Gurjar, Luisa T. Molina, Chandra S.P. Ojha ; foreword by Mario J. Molina.

Format:
Book
Language:
English
Published/​Created:
Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, c2010.
Description:
xxiii, 532 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
Bibliographic references:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents:
  • Chapter 1. Air Pollution: Health and Environmental Concerns / Chandra S.P. Ojha -- SECTION I. Air Pollution Monitoring and Modeling -- Chapter 2. Air Pollution Monitoring and Source Characterization / Bhola R. Gurjar -- 2.1. Introduction -- 2.2. Objectives of Air Pollution Monitoring -- 2.3. Sample Collection -- 2.3.1. Selection of Contaminants for Air Quality Monitoring -- 2.3.2. Selection of Monitoring Sites -- 2.3.3. Equipment Maintenance and Inspection -- 2.3.4. Data Validation and Interpretation -- 2.4. Selection of Monitoring Methods -- 2.4.1. High-Precision Instrumental Methods -- 2.4.2. Lower-Level Instrumental Methods -- 2.4.3. Manual Particulate Methods -- 2.4.4. Manual Wet-Chemical Methods -- 2.4.5. Passive Monitoring Methods -- 2.5. Common Monitoring Methods for SOx9 NOx9 and PM -- 2.5.1. Monitoring of Gaseous Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds -- 2.5.2. Measurment of PM -- 2.5.2.1. Direct Mass Measurement Techniques -- 2.5.2.2. Indirect Mass Measurement Techniques -- 2.6. Source Apportionment and Characterization -- 2.6.1. Enrichment Factor (EF) Analysis -- 2.6.2. CMB Methods -- 2.6.3. Multivariate Receptor Models -- 2.6.3.1. Cluster Analysis -- 2.6.3.2. Factor Analysis, PCA, and PMF -- 2.6.3.3. Target Transformation Factor Analysis -- 2.6.3.4. Multiple Linear Regression -- 2.7. Summary -- References -- Chapter 3. Air Pollution Modeling: Theory and Application / Wenfang Lei -- 3.1. Introduction -- 3.2. Atmospheric Dispersion Basics -- 3.3. Dispersion Modeling and Types of Dispersion Models -- 3.3.1. Box Model -- 3.3.2. Gaussian Plume Model -- 3.3.3. Gaussian Puff Model -- 3.3.4. Lagrangian Model -- 3.3.5. Eulerian Model -- 3.3.6. CFD Model -- 3.4. Commercial and Open Source Software -- 3.4.1. Software Excluding Aerosol Dynamics -- 3.4.1.1. Box Models -- 3.4.1.2. Gaussian Models -- 3.4.1.3. Lagrangian/Eulerian Models -- 3.4.1.4. CFD Models -- 3.4.2. Models/Software Including Aerosol Dynamics -- 3.4.2.1. Eulerian and Lagrangian Models -- 3.5. Statistical/Probabilistic Air Quality Models -- 3.5.1. Artificial Neural Network Models -- 3.5.2. Fuzzy Logic-Based Modeling -- 3.5.3. Ranking of Models -- 3.5.4. Establishment of Membership Functions for Premise Variable -- 3.5.5. Fuzzy Inference -- 3.5.6. Selection of an Appropriate Modeling Scheme -- 3.5.7. Time Series Analysis -- 3.5.8. Methodology of Time Series Modeling -- 3.5.9. Preparation and Preliminary Investigation of Data -- 3.5.10. Correlogram Analysis -- 3.5.11. Model Identification Process -- 3.5.12. Estimation of Parameters -- 3.5.13. Application of Time Series Analysis -- 3.6. Case Studies -- 3.6.1. Deterministic Modeling -- 3.6.1.1. Using CALMET+CALPUFF to Define Geographical Extension of Nonattainment Areas -- 3.6.1.2. Using WRF-Chem for Regional Modeling of Ozone in Chile -- 3.6.1.3. Deterministic Air Quality Forecasting in Chile -- 3.6.1.4. Regional Air Quality Forecasting in Support of VOCALS Campaign -- 3.6.1.5. Inverse Modeling of Emissions Inventories in Asia During Trace-P Campaign -- 3.6.2. Methodology for Urban Health Impacts Analysis -- 3.6.3. Statistical Model Case Studies -- 3.6.3.1. Linear Regression Models in Santiago, Chile -- 3.6.3.2. Application of ANN: A Case Study from Delhi -- 3.7. Summary -- References -- SECTION II. Air Pollution and Health Effects -- Chapter 4. Indoor Air Pollution and Health Effects / Mukesh Khar -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.1.1. Indian Perspective -- 4.2. Indoor Air Pollution: Their Sources and Causes -- 4.2.1. Parameters of IAQ -- 4.2.2. Ventilation and IAQ -- 4.2.3. Sick Building Syndrome -- 4.3. Investigating IAQ Problems -- 4.3.1. Sampling/Monitoring and Modeling of Indoor Air Pollutant -- 4.4. Indoor Air Pollution and Health Effects -- 4.4.1. Disproportionate Impacts on Children and Women -- 4.4.2. IAQ and Health Effects: Indian Estimates -- 4.5. Indoor Air Pollution Control -- References -- Chapter 5. Effects of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Fuel Use on Women's Health in India / Manas Ranjan Ray -- 5.1. Introduction -- 5.1.1. Biomass Use in Indian Subcontinent -- 5.1.2. IAP from Biomass Burning -- 5.1.3. Health Impact of Biomass Smoke Exposure: Excess Morbidity and Mortality -- 5.1.4. Scope of the Work and Objective of the Study -- 5.2. Study Protocol -- 5.2.1. Subjects -- 5.2.2. Evluation of Respiratory Health -- 5.2.3. Measurement of IAP -- 5.2.4. Hematological Assays -- 5.2.5. Reproductive Toxicity of Biomass Smoke Exposures -- 5.2.6. Genotoxicity and Antioxidant Defense -- 5.2.7. Questionnaire Survey for Neurobehavioral Problems -- 5.3. Salient Findings -- 5.3.1. Particulate Pollution in Cooking Areas -- 5.3.2. Effects on Respiratory Health -- 5.3.2.1. Rise in Respiratory Symptoms -- 5.3.2.2. Asthma -- 5.3.2.3. Reduction in Lung Function -- 5.3.2.4. Adverse Cellular Lung Reaction -- 5.3.2.5. Rise in COPD -- 5.3.3. Hematological, Immunological, and Cardiovascular Changes -- 5.3.4. Adverse Effects on Female Reproductive System -- 5.3.4.1. Alternations in Menstrual Cycle Length -- 5.3.4.2. Spontaneous Abortion -- 5.3.4.3. Low Birth Weight and Stillbirth -- 5.3.5. Depletion of Antioxidant Defense -- 5.3.6. Genotoxicity and Careinogenic Changes -- 5.3.6.1. Chromosomal Breakage -- 5.3.6.2. DNA Damage -- 5.3.6.3. Cancer Risk -- 5.3.7. Depression and Other Neurobehavioral Changes -- 5.3.7.1. Changes in Neurotransmitter Level -- 5.4. Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 6. Health Effects of Urban Air Pollution in India / Twisha Lahiri -- 6.1. Introduction -- 6.1.1. Air Pollution Scenario in Indian Cities -- 6.1.2. Sources of Air Pollution in Urban India -- 6.1.3. Air Pollution from Vehicular Sources -- 6.1.3.1. Exponential Growth in the Number of Motor Vehicles -- 6.1.3.2. Traffic Congestion and Low Traffic Speed -- 6.1.3.3. Poor Fuel Quality and Adulteration -- 6.1.3.4. Poor Vehicle Maintenance -- 6.1.4. Industrial Emissions -- 6.1.5. Emissions from Domestic Sources -- 6.2. Constituents of Polluted Air -- 6.2.1. Particulate Matter: The Major Toxic Component of Urban Air -- 6.2.2. Coarse Particles (PM10) -- 6.2.3. Accumulation Mode or Fine Particles (PM2.5) -- 6.2.4. Nuclei Mode or Ultrafine Particles -- 6.2.5. SO2 and NOx -- 6.2.6. Carbon Monoxide -- 6.2.7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons -- 6.2.8. Volatile Organic Compounds -- 6.2.9. Air Toxics of Biological Origin -- 6.3. Health Effects of Air Pollution -- 6.3.1. Excess Mortality -- 6.3.2. Increased Morbidity -- 6.3.3. Additive and Synergistic Effects of Airborne Pollutants -- 6.4. Materials and Methods -- 6.5. Salient Findings -- 6.5.1. Effects on Respiratory Health -- 6.5.1.1. Rise in the Prevalence of Respiratory Symptoms -- 6.5.1.2. Rise in Bronchial Asthma -- 6.5.1.3. Reduction of Lung Function -- 6.5.1.4. Rise in COPD Prevalence -- 6.5.1.5. Adverse Cellular Lung Response -- 6.5.1.6. Airway Inflammation -- 6.5.1.7. Changes in Alveolar Macrophages, the First Line of Cellular Lung Defense -- 6.5.1.8. Covert Pulmonary Hemorrhage -- 6.5.1.9. Upregulation of Elastase Activity -- 6.5.1.10. TNF-α, iNOS, and p53 Overexpression, AM Apoptosis -- 6.6. Systemic Effects of Air Pollution in Urban India -- 6.6.1. Cardiovascular Changes -- 6.6.2. Hypertension -- 6.6.2.1. Air Pollution and Other Risk Factors for Hypertension -- 6.6.3. Relationship between Blood Pressure and Lung Function -- 6.6.4. Mechanism of Cardiovascular Effects of Air Pollution: Upregulation of Platelet Activity -- 6.6.5. Hematological and Immunological Changes -- 6.6.6. Metabolic Changes -- 6.6.6.1. Liver Function -- 6.6.6.2. Kidney Function -- 6.6.7. Neurotoxicity of Air Pollution -- 6.6.8. Change in Antioxidant Status --
  • 6.6.8.1. Depletion of SOD and Total Antioxidant Status -- 6.6.9. Genotoxic Effects of Air Pollution -- 6.6.9.1. Micronucleus Formation and Other Nuclear Anomalies -- 6.6.9.2. Benzene Exposure and Genotoxic Changes -- 6.6.10. Air Pollution and Cancer -- 6.7. Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 7. Air Pollutants Exposure and Health Effects during the Milagro-MCMA2006 Campaign / Eliseo Cantellano -- 7.1. Introduction -- 7.2. Air-Pollution-Related Health Effects in MCMA -- 7.3. High-Risk Populations -- 7.4. The MCMA-2006 Campaign -- 7.4.1. Ozone -- 7.4.2. PM2.5 -- 7.4.3. UF Particles -- 7.4.4. Endotoxins -- 7.4.5. Fungi -- 7.4.6. VOCs -- 7.4.7. Carbon Monoxide -- 7.4.8. Respiratory and Olfactory Condition -- 7.4.9. Oxidative Stress in Children -- 7.4.10. Oxidative Stress in Adults -- 7.4.11. Cytokines -- 7.5. Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Sources, Distribution, Health Implications / Anita Lakhani -- 8.1. Introduction -- 8.1.1. Structure and Properties -- 8.2. Formation and Sources -- 8.2.1. Sources -- 8.2.1.1. Natural Sources -- 8.2.1.2. Anthropogenic Sources -- 8.3. Chemical Transformations -- 8.3.1. Nonphotochemical Degradation -- 8.4. Environmental Significance of PAHs and Their Effects on Human Health -- 8.5. Toxicokinetics -- 8.6. Structure-Activity Relationship -- 8.7. Health Impacts -- 8.7.1. Risk Characterization -- 8.7.2. Mutagenicity Assays -- 8.8. Standard Limits for PAH in the Air -- 8.9. Control Measures -- 8.10. Summary -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 9. Cellular Mechanisms behind Particulate Matter Air Pollution-Related Health Effects / Alvaro R. Osornio-Vargas -- 9.1. Introduction -- 9.2. Pulmonary Effects of PM -- 9.3. Translocatio of PM -- 9.4. Extrapulmonary Effects Induced by PM -- 9.5. Oxidative Stress Induced by PM -- 9.6. Carcinogenic Responses Induced by PM -- 9.7. Conclusions, Controversies, and Future Directions -- 9.8. Concluding Points -- Acknowledgments -- References -- SECTION III. Health Risk Assessment and Management -- Chapter 10. Emission of Airborne Particulate Matter in Indoor Environments: Exposure and Risk Assessment / Sathrugnan Karthikeyan -- 10.1. Introduction -- 10.2. Objectives -- 10.3. Case Study 1 (Controlled Experiments) -- 10.3.1. Sampling Site -- 10.3.2. Sample Collection -- 10.3.3. Results and Discussion (Case Study 1) -- 10.3.3.1. Number Concentration of Particles -- 10.3.3.2. Health Risk Assessment -- 10.4. Case Study 2 (Real-World Environment) -- 10.4.1. Description of Sampling Sites -- 10.4.2. Sample Collection -- 10.4.3. Extraction and Chemical Analyses -- 10.4.4. Results and Discussion (Case Study 2) -- 10.4.4.1. Mass Concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs -- 10.4.4.2. Health Risk Assessment -- 10.5. Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 11. Estimation of Health Impacts due to PM10 in Major Indian Cities / Sanjeev K. Goyal -- 11.1. Introduction -- 11.2. Standards for PM10 and its Status in Major Indian Cities -- 11.3. Estimation of Health Impacts due to PM10 -- 11.3.1. Methodologies -- 11.3.2. Estimated Health Impacts for Major Indian Cities -- 11.3.3. Economic Valuation of the Health Impacts -- 11.3.4. Uncertainty in Health Impact Assessment -- 11.4. Summary -- References -- Chapter 12. Health Risk Assessment and Management for Air Toxics in Indian Environment / Bhola R. Gurjar -- 12.1. Introduction -- 12.2. Acute Risk -- 12.2.1. Model Formulation and Validation -- 12.2.2. Estimation of Vulnerable Zones -- 12.2.3. User-Oriented Results -- 12.3. Chronic Risk -- 12.3.1. Cadmium -- 12.3.2. Chromium -- 12.3.3. Nickel -- 12.4. Integrated Risk Analysis Using Both Acute and Chronic Risk: Case Studies -- 12.5. Current Status and Limitation of Risk Assessment Techniques -- 12.6. Conclusions -- References -- SECTION IV. Air Quality Management: Techniques and Policy Aspects -- Chapter 13. The Economics of Air Pollution: Theories, Valuation Methods, and Policy Aspects / Dilek Demirbas -- 13.1. Introduction: Environmental Degradation, Health Effects of Air Pollution, and Neoclassical Environmental Economics -- 13.2. Theoretical Basis of Neoclassical Environmental Economics -- 13.2.1. Utilitarianism -- 13.2.2. Neoclassical Efficiency -- 13.2.3. Welfare Economics -- 13.2.4. Conclusion-I -- 13.3. Economic Valuation Approaches within Neoclassical Environmental Economics: Measuring the Intensity of Individual Wants and the Assessment of Health Impacts of Air Pollution -- 13.3.1. WTP Approach -- 13.3.2. Human Capital Approach -- 13.3.3. Economics of Abatement -- 13.3.4. Conclusion-II -- 13.4. CBA within Neoclassical Environmental Economics: Measuring and Comparing the Individual Preferences for Environmental Decision Making and the Health Impacts of Air Pollution -- 13.4.1. Rationality of CBA -- 13.4.2. Structure of CBA -- 13.4.3. Technical Conceptual Framework for CBA -- 13.4.4. Problems with CBA -- 13.4.5. Conclusion-III -- 13.5. Alternative Approaches to the Neoclassical Environmental Economic View -- 13.5.1. Austrian Economic Theory -- 13.5.2. Green Economics -- 13.5.3. Ecological Economics -- 13.5.4. Conclusion-IV -- 13.6. Conclusion: What Must the Role of Economics be to Eliminate Air Pollution in the Future? -- References -- Chapter 14. Elements of Air Quality Management: Atmospheric Science Tools for Developing Effective Policy / Lorraine Craig -- 14.1. Introduction -- 14.2. Air Pollution's Effect on Human Health -- 14.2.1. Brief Review of the Evidence -- 14.3. AQ Management Framework -- 14.4. AQ Models and Emission Inventories -- 14.4.1. Applications of Models for AQ Management -- 14.4.2. Technical Issues and Uncertainties to Consider in AQ Modeling -- 14.4.3. Judging a Model's Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Uncertainty -- 14.4.4. Generating Emission Inventories -- 14.4.4.1. Costs of Emission Inventory Development and Improvement -- 14.4.4.2. Weaknesses of Current Emission Inventories -- 14.4.4.3. Evaluating Uncertainty in Emission Estimates -- 14.5. Review of Best Practice for Using Models for AQ Management -- 14.5.1. Model Verification and Model Evaluation -- 14.5.2. Model Applications -- 14.6. AQ Measurements -- 14.6.1. Assessing Health Effects -- 14.6.2. Obtaining Representative Ambient Measurements -- 14.6.3. Tracking Progress -- 14.6.4. Use of Measurements in Model Development -- 14.6.5. Public Information -- 14.7. Technical Issues in Establishing a Measurement Program -- 14.7.1. What to Measure and How Often -- 14.7.2. Siting Criteria and Where to Measure -- 14.7.3. Quality Assurance -- 14.7.4. Data Archiving and Reporting -- 14.8. New Directions in the Application of Measurements and Models -- 14.9. Summary -- References -- SECTION V. Environmental Impacts of Air Pollution -- Chapter 15. Assessing Ground-Level Ozone (O3) Impacts to Crops in Parts of Asia and Southern Africa: The Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries (RAPIDC) Crops Project / D. Perera -- 15.1. Introduction -- 15.2. The RAPIDC Crops Program -- 15.2.1. The APCEN Network -- 15.2.2. Provisional Risk Assessment Modeling and Mapping -- 15.2.2.1. Provisional Risk Assessment for South Asia -- 15.2.2.2. Provisional Risk Assessment for South East Asia -- 15.2.2.3. Provisional Risk Assessment for Southern Africa -- 15.2.3. Biomonitoring and Chemical Protectant Studies in South Asia and Southern Africa -- 15.2.3.1. The Clover Clone Biomonitoring Method -- 15.2.3.2. The EDU Chemical Protectant Study -- 15.2.3.3. Other Risk Assessment Techniques -- 15.3. Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References --
  • Chapter 16. Impacts of Air Pollution on the Ecosystem and Human Health: A Sustainability Perspective / Naela Costica -- 16.1. Ecosystems, Society, and Economy -- 16.2. Environmentally Conscious Development: How to Fathom the Causes and Effects of Air Pollution -- 16.3. Environmentally Conscious Development: Natural Capital is Irreplaceable -- 16.4. Environmentally Conscious Development: The Carrying Capacity and the Ecological Footprint -- 16.5. CO2 Emissions and Climate Change: Risks to Ecosystems and Human Health and Welfare -- 16.6. Air Pollution and UV Radiation: Risks to Ecosystems and Human Health -- 16.7. Air Pollution and Acid Depositions: Risks to Ecosystems and Human Health -- 16.8. Air Pollution: Combined Effects on Ecosystems and Human Health -- 16.9. Environmentally Conscious Development: The Quest for Environmental Science and Technology -- 16.10. Environmentally Conscious Development: The Quest for Ecological Economics -- 16.11. Environmentally Conscious Development: The Quest for EE -- References -- Chapter 17. Regional and Global Environmental Issues of Air Pollution / Bhola R. Gurjar -- 17.1. Introduction -- 17.2. Sources and Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants -- 17.3. Impacts of Air Pollution -- 17.4. Visibility Impairment and Regional Haze -- 17.5. Regional Ecosystem Impacts -- 17.5.1. Acid and Fixed Nitrogen Deposition -- 17.5.2. Photochemical Oxidant Damage -- 17.5.3. Effects of PM on Photosynthetically Active Radiation -- 17.6. Regional Climate Change -- 17.6.1. Effects of PM on Sunshine Duration and Temperature -- 17.6.2. Effects of PM on Precipitation and Clouds -- 17.7. Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants -- 17.8. Global Climate Change -- 17.8.1. Earth's Climate System -- 17.8.2. Greenhouse Effect -- 17.8.3. Climatic Impacts of Air Pollutants -- 17.8.4. Impacts of Climate Change -- 17.8.5. Air Quality: Climate Change Interlinkage -- 17.8.6. Atmospheric Brown Cloud: Long-Range Pollutant Transport and Climate Change -- 17.9. Stratospheric Ozone Depletion -- 17.9.1. Montreal Protocol -- 17.10. Future Outlook: Challenges and Opportunities -- References.
Subject(s):
ISBN:
  • 9781439809624 (hard back : alk. paper)
  • 1439809623 (hard back : alk. paper)
LCCN:
2009053436
OCLC:
495596573
Related name:
RCP:
C - S