Princeton University Library Catalog

Laboratory medicine : the diagnosis of disease in the clinical laboratory / edited by Michael Laposata.

New York : Lange Medical Book/McGraw-Hill Medical, c2010.
xxx, 454 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm.
Bibliographic references:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
  • 1. Concepts in Laboratory Medicine / Michael Laposata -- Learning Objectives -- 1. To understand the concepts of sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, prevalence, and incidence -- 2. To learn the frequently encountered preanalytical variables that influence laboratory test results -- 3. To identify the well-known interferences in many of the laboratory tests -- 4. To understand the individual steps in specimen processing and handling -- 5. To understand the guidelines for appropriate selection of laboratory tests -- 6. To understand how cell injury and inflammation result in the generation of plasma markers of these processes -- Analytical and Statistical Concepts in Data Analysis -- Ranges Used in the Interpretation of Test Results -- The Reference Range -- The Desirable Range -- Therapeutic Range -- Interpretations of Clinical Laboratory Test Results that Do not Involve the Use of a Range -- The Need for a Diagnostic Cutoff -- The Definition of Sensitivity of a Laboratory Test -- The Definition of Specificity of a Laboratory Test -- The Identification of the Appropriate Value for the Diagnostic Threshold -- The Definition of Predictive Value of a Positive Test -- The Definition of Predictive Value of a Negative Test -- The Difference Between Prevalence and Incidence -- Precision versus Accuracy -- Analyzing Errors in Laboratory Performance -- Preanalytical Variables that Affect Laboratory Test Results -- The Effect of Age on Laboratory Tests -- The Effect of Gender on Laboratory Tests -- The Effect of Body Mass on Laboratory Tests -- Preparation of the Patient for Laboratory Testing -- Patient Posture for Blood Collection -- Differences in Test Results Between Samples of Venous, Arterial, and Capillary Blood -- Interferences in Laboratory Tests -- Analytical Interferences in Laboratory Testing -- Impact of Drugs on Laboratory Test Results -- Test Selection Guidelines -- The Use of Screening Tests Before Esoteric Tests -- The Danger of Ordering Too Many Laboratory Tests -- Specimen Processing and Handling -- The Importance of Turnaround Time -- Tubes for Blood Collection -- Timing of Blood Collection -- Effects of Cell Injury and Inflammation on Selected Laboratory Tests -- The Release of Plasma Markers of Organ Damage from Injured Cells -- Markers of Inflammation and the Acute Phase Response -- The Serologic Diagnosis of Infectious Disease -- 2. Methods / Michael Laposata -- Methods in Clinical Immunology -- Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing -- Protein electrophoresis (PEP) -- Immunofixation to identify monoclonal immunoglobulins -- Flow cytometry for identification of cell type and assessment for cell surface markers -- Nephelometry for quantitation of selected proteins and other compounds -- Cryoglobulin analysis -- Methods in Microbiology -- Gram stain -- Microbiologic culture and organism identification -- Blood cultures -- Antimicrobial sensitivity tests -- Direct and indirect immunofluorescence for antigen detection -- Methods in Hematology -- Counting of blood cells with automated white blood cell differential count -- Peripheral blood smear analysis -- Sickle cell screening assay -- Hemoglobin electrophoresis -- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate -- Methods in Coagulation -- The PT and PTT assays -- PT and PTT mixing studies -- Coagulation factor assays -- von Willebrand factor assays -- Platelet aggregation -- Methods in Transfusion Medicine and Blood Banking -- ABO/Rh typing -- Blood component preparation -- Blood crossmatch -- Direct antiglobulin test (DAT) -- Indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) -- Apheresis -- Western blot -- Methods in Clinical Chemistry and General Methods -- Electrolyte measurements: Sodium-Na, Potassium-K, Chloride-Cl -- Assays measuring concentration by spectrophotometry -- Blood gas measurements -- Urinalysis -- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) -- Latex agglutination -- Mass spectrometry for molecular identification -- Polymerase chain reaction with restriction enzyme digestion for detection of mutations -- 3. Autoimmune Disorders Involving the Connective Tissue and Immunodeficiency Diseases / Mandakolathur R. Murali -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Learn the common autoimmune diseases involving primarily the connective tissue -- 2. Understand the disorders associated with immune deficiencies and their underlying pathophysiology -- 3. Learn the diagnostic tests required to establish a diagnosis for autoimmune disorders and for immunodeficiency disorders -- Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Involving the Connective Tissue -- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -- Sjogren Syndrome -- Systemic Sclerosis/Scleroderma -- Inflammatory Muscle Diseases -- Mixed Connective Tissue Disease -- Rheumatoid Arthritis -- Amyloidosis -- Cryoglobulinemia -- Diseases of the Immune System -- X-linked Agammaglobulinemia -- Common Variable Immunodeficiency -- Hyper-IgM Syndrome -- Selective IgA Deficiency -- DiGeorge Syndrome -- Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) Syndrome -- Deficiencies of Complement Proteins -- 4. Histocompatibility Testing and Transplantation / Susan L. Saidman -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Learn the organization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and the molecular details of their gene products -- 2. Understand the clinical laboratory tests used to assess histocompatibility -- 3. Learn the histocompatibility requirements for the solid organ and stem cell transplants in clinical use -- Chapter Outline -- Introduction -- HLA Genes and Gene Products -- Serologic Histocompatibility Testing Assays -- HLA Typing -- HLA Antibody Screening -- Crossmatching -- Molecular Techniques for HLA Typing -- Histocompatibility Requirements for Solid Organ and Stem Cell Transplants -- Kidney -- Liver -- Heart -- Lung -- Pancreas -- Cornea -- Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation -- 5. Infectious Diseases / Eric D. Spitzer -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Determine if an organism of interest is a bacterium, fungus, parasite, or virus and learn how it is further classified among related organisms -- 2. Learn the organisms that produce the commonly encountered and better characterized infectious diseases -- 3. Distinguish pathogenic organisms from those found in normal flora -- 4. Learn the laboratory test results associated with the individual infectious diseases and how they are used in establishing the diagnosis -- Chapter Outline -- Introduction -- Laboratory Tests for Infectious Agents -- Direct Stains -- Culture -- Antigen Detection -- Nucleic Acid Amplification -- Serology -- Sepsis and Bloodstream Infections -- Bacteremia -- Infections Caused by Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Related Organisms -- Fungemia -- Parasitic Infections of the Blood -- Malaria -- Babesiosis -- Viral Infections of the Blood -- Infectious Mononucleosis/Epstein-Barr Virus -- Cytomegalovirus -- Parvovirus B19 -- Endocarditis: Infection of the Heart -- Infections of the Central Nervous System -- Acute Bacterial Meningitis -- Acute Viral Meningitis -- Chronic Meningitis -- Encephalitis -- Brain Abscess -- Bone Infections/Osteomyelitis -- Infections of the Joints -- Infections of the Skin and Adjacent Soft Tissue -- Acute Bacterial Infections -- Lyme Disease -- Cat-Scratch Disease and Bacillary Angiomatosis -- Fungal Infections -- Viral Infections with Prominent Skin Manifestations -- Varicella Zoster Viral Infection -- Measles (Rubeola) and Rubella -- Eye Infections -- Infections of the Larynx, Pharynx, Mouth, Ear, Orbit, and Sinuses -- Infections of the Lung and Pleurae -- Tuberculosis -- Legionella Infections -- Nocardiosis -- Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia -- Dimorphic Fungi and Other Fungal Infections -- Respiratory Virus Infections -- Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract -- Viruses Inducing Gastroenteritis -- Aerobic Bacterial Infections --
  • Clostridium difficile and Other Clostridial Infections -- Protozoal Infections -- Intestinal Helminth Infections -- Food Poisoning -- Botulism -- Pyelonephritis and Urinary Tract Infections -- Infections of the Male Genital Tract -- Infections of the Female Genital Tract -- Sexually Transmitted Diseases -- Syphilis -- Gonorrhea -- Chlamydial Infections -- Herpes Simplex Virus Infections -- 6. Toxicology / Michael Laposata -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Learn when therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary and how it is performed for commonly monitored drugs -- 2. Understand basic pharmacokinetic principles as they relate to therapeutic drug monitoring -- 3. Identify the common drugs of abuse and learn how they are detected in blood, serum, urine, and other body fluids -- 4. Understand the association between occupations and industries and specific environmental toxins -- Introduction -- Therapeutic Drug Monitoring -- Overview of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring -- Indications for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring -- Pharmacokinetic Principles -- Laboratory Methods -- Specimen Collection -- Selected Commonly Monitored Drugs -- Antibiotics -- Antiepileptics -- Antidepressants -- Other Therapeutic Agents -- Detection of Drugs of Abuse and Environmental Toxins -- Overview of Drugs of Abuse -- Specimen Collection and Laboratory Analysis -- Selected Drugs of Abuse and Substances Abused by Excess Intake -- Overview---Environmental Toxins -- Carbon Monoxide -- Lead -- 7. Diseases of Infancy and Childhood / Paul Steele -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Identify the clinical situations that indicate the need for prenatal testing of mother and/or infant, and the clinical consequences of premature birth -- 2. Understand the rationale for selection of laboratory tests in neonatal screening programs -- 3. Learn the assessment for diagnosis of Down syndrome and the clinical situations in which it is most often performed -- 4. Learn the underlying defects that produce hemolytic disease of the newborn and cystic fibrosis and the laboratory test abnormalities associated with these disorders -- 5. Learn the names of the diseases and the associated biochemical defects for the more commonly encountered or better characterized inborn errors of metabolism in the following categories -- amino acidurias not involving urea cycle enzymes -- amino acidurias involving urea cycle enzymes -- lysosomal storage diseases with impaired degradation of sphingolipids -- lysosomal storage diseases with impaired degradation of mucopolysaccharides -- lysosomal storage diseases with impaired degradation of glycogen -- Introduction -- Prenatal and Neonatal Laboratory Testing -- Prenatal Testing and Screening -- Neonatal Screening -- Neonatal Testing -- Prematurity -- Down Syndrome -- Infectious Diseases in the Perinatal Period -- Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn -- Cystic Fibrosis -- Amino Acidurias -- Lysosomal Storage Diseases -- Neuroblastoma -- 8. Blood Vessels / Michael Laposata -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Identify the lipid and nonlipid laboratory assays useful in the evaluation for cardiovascular risk and describe how they are used in conjunction with other information -- 2. Learn the names of the most commonly encountered or best characterized primary hyperlipidemias, their associated serum or plasma lipid abnormalities, and the defects responsible for the initiation of the disorders -- 3. Learn the correctable causes of hypertension that can be identified by laboratory tests -- 4. Understand the different forms of vasculitis and the role of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in their diagnosis -- 5. Learn the role of plasma D-dimer concentration and radiographic studies in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis -- Introduction -- Atherosclerosis -- Hypertension -- Vasculitis -- Deep Vein Thrombosis -- 9. The Heart / Fred S. Apple -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Learn the differential diagnosis of chest pain and the laboratory tests used in the assessment of myocardial ischemia -- 2. Learn the clinical features of congestive heart failure and the laboratory tests useful in monitoring patients with this disorder -- Introduction -- Acute Myocardial Infarction -- Description -- Diagnosis -- Cardiac Troponin -- Analytical Methods for Measuring Cardiac Troponin -- 99th Percentile Reference Value as a Cutoff for Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction -- Role of Cardiac Troponin for Risk Outcomes Assessment -- Orders for Serial Cardiac Troponin Testing -- Congestive Heart Failure -- Description -- Diagnosis -- Biological Variability -- 10. Diseases of Red Blood Cells / Daniel D. Mais -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Learn the different causes of anemia and their pathophysiology -- 2. Learn how to identify the specific cause of anemia in a particular patient -- 3. Learn the causes of erythrocytosis and how to distinguish among them -- Anemia -- Definition -- Differential Diagnosis -- Acute Blood Loss -- Iron Deficiency Anemia -- Anemia of Chronic Disease -- Thalassemia -- Folate Deficiency -- Vitamin B12 Deficiency -- Lead Poisoning (Plumbism) -- Sickle Cell Anemia and Other Hemoglobinopathies -- Hereditary Spherocytosis -- Hereditary Elliptocytosis (HE) -- Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia -- Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) -- Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemias -- Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency -- Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency -- Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria -- Sideroblastic Anemia -- Pure Red Cell Aplasia -- Erythrocytosis -- Polycythemia Vera -- Methods -- Red Cell Indices -- Reticulocyte Counting -- Hemoglobin Electrophoresis -- Screening Tests for Sickle Hemoglobin -- Osmotic Fragility Test -- Direct Antiglobulin Test (Coombs Test) -- Kleihauer-Betke Test -- 11. Bleeding and Thrombotic Disorders / Michael Laposata -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Learn the basic molecular events in clot formation and fibrinolysis -- 2. Understand the basic classification of disorders in hemostasis -- 3. Identify the appropriate laboratory tests for evaluation of the bleeding patient and the thrombotic patient -- 4. Learn the prominent clinical and laboratory features of the individual disorders of hemostasis -- Introduction to Hemostasis -- Clot Formation -- Fibrinolysis -- Bleeding Disorders -- Fibrinogen Deficiencies -- Prothrombin (Factor II) Deficiency -- Factor V Deficiency -- Factor VII Deficiency -- Hemophilia A (Factor VIII Deficiency) -- Factor VIII Inhibitors -- Hemophilia B (Factor IX Deficiency) -- Factor X Deficiency -- Factor XI Deficiency -- Deficiencies of the Contact Factors -- Factor XIII Deficiency -- Antiplasmin Deficiency -- Vitamin K Deficiency -- Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation -- Hemostatic Abnormalities in Liver Disease -- Idiopathic or Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) -- Drug-induced Immunologic Thrombocytopenia -- Posttransfusion Purpura -- Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia (NAIT) -- Essential Thrombocythemia -- von Willebrand Disease -- Bernard-Soulier Disease and Glanzmann Thrombasthenia -- Platelet Storage Pool Disease -- Hemostatic Defects in Uremia -- Drug-induced Qualitative Platelet Disorders -- Thrombotic Disorders -- Hypercoagulable States -- Antiphospholipid Antibodies: The Lupus Anticoagulant, Anticardiolipin, and Beta-2 Glycoprotein I Antibodies -- Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura -- Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome -- 12. Transfusion Medicine / Jacqueline J. Haas -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Understand the process of blood collection and the preparation of blood components and plasma derivatives -- 2. Learn which tests must be performed to assure safe transfusion -- 3. Learn the specific indications for transfusion of individual blood components and alternatives to allogeneic transfusion --
  • 4. Understand the clinical complications that may arise after transfusion of blood components -- 5. Learn about the collection and use of hematopoietic progenitor cells -- 6. Learn the process of apheresis and its clinical indications -- Collection of Blood and Preparation of Blood Components -- Blood Collection -- Component Preparation -- Testing of Donated Blood -- Infectious Disease Testing -- Compatibility Testing -- Pretransfusion Testing to Assess Donor/Recipient Compatibility for Blood Components Containing BCs -- ABO Grouping -- Rh Typing -- The Antibody Screen and the Indirect Antiglobulin Assay Used to Detect Antibodies -- The RBC Crossmatch -- Direct Antiglobulin Test (Formerly Direct Coombs' Test) -- Compatibility Testing for Other Blood Components That Do Not Contain RBCs -- Indications for Transfusion -- Red Blood Cells -- Platelets -- Fresh Frozen Plasma -- Cryoprecipitate -- Complications of Blood Transfusion -- Immunologic Reactions -- Nonimmunologic Reactions -- Transfusion Reaction Work-up -- Alternatives to Allogeneic Transfusion -- Cellular Therapies -- Therapeutic Apheresis -- Indications for Therapeutic Apheresis -- Plasmapheresis -- Cytapheresis -- Erythrocytapheresis (RBC Exchange) -- Photopheresis -- 13. Diseases of White Blood Cells, Lymph Nodes, and Spleen / Daniel E. Sabath -- Learning Objectives -- 1. Learn the differential diagnosis of leukopenia -- 2. Distinguish between neoplastic and nonneoplastic proliferations of white blood cells -- 3. Learn the diagnostic criteria for the different types of lymphomas, leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative disorders, and plasma cell dyscrasias -- 4. Understand the genetic, biochemical, and/or cellular defects associated with the more commonly encountered disorders of WBC function -- Leukopenia -- Nonneoplastic Proliferation of WBCs -- Lymphocytes -- Eosinophils -- Monocytes -- Neutrophils -- Neoplastic Proliferation of WBCs -- Lymphoid Malignancies -- Lymphoma -- Precursor B- and T-cell Neoplasms -- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia -- Hairy Cell Leukemia -- Plasma Cell Dyscrasias -- Plasma Cell Myeloma -- Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia -- Heavy Chain Disease -- Monoclonal Gammopathies of Unknown Significance -- Hodgkin Lymphoma -- Myeloid Disorders -- Acute Myeloid Leukemias -- Myeloproliferative Disorders -- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia -- Polycythemia Vera -- Essential Thrombocythemia -- Primary Myelofibrosis -- Myelodysplastic Syndromes -- WHO Classification of the Myelodysplastic Syndrome.
Diagnosis, Laboratory [Browse]
  • 9780071626743 (pbk. : alk. paper)
  • 0071626743 (pbk. : alk. paper)
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