Princeton University Library Catalog

Jet fuel toxicology / edited by Mark L. Witten, Errol Zeiger, Glenn D. Ritchie.

Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, c2011.
xiii, 324 p., [8] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Summary note:
"Due to its widespread use, jet fuel is thought to be the largest toxicant exposure risk for U.S. Armed Services personnel. Taking a proactive approach to the potential dangers of repeated human exposure to hydrocarbon fuels, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) sponsored a number of research projects during the last 20 years investigating health effects resulting from specific exposure to JP-8 (Jet Propellant-8)." "Jet Fuel Toxicology summarizes the newest and most important results of these extensive research programs carried out by hydrocarbon fuel research groups throughout the United States. Each book chapter highlights one specific research area from the many topical areas comprising jet fuel toxicology. After examining the contents and general action of JP-8, the book looks at how the fuel affects various body functions highlighted by:" "-Effects of daily inhalation on the respiratory system" "-Acute and long-term neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects" "-Both local and systemic toxicity following exposure through the skin" "-Immunotoxicity from pulmonary and dermal exposures" "-Genetic damage, as evidenced in studies of the blood and bone marrow of mice" "In all, the book considers 13 major toxicology areas of study, the results of which will enable all of the hydrocarbon industry to make fuel choices that more carefully consider possible human health risks." "Perhaps even more importantly, the book profoundly demonstrates how unfortunate lessons from the following major chemical exposure scenarios of the past must not be lost in the ongoing protection of both military personnel and civilians:" "-Agent Orange exposures during the Vietnam War" "-Multiple chemical/stressor exposures, including multiple fuels and solvents, during the Persian Gulf Wars" "-Chemical exposures, including Jet-A fuel, during the 9/11 World Trade Center Disaster" "-Hydrocarbon/oil dispersing compound exposures during the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Crisis of 2010" "For example, based on data contained in this book, the Air Force now removes female personnel from any exposure to jet fuel during their pregnancies and has reduced permissible exposure levels to jet fuel for all military and associated civilian staff. Ultimately, this book can serve as a template for managing future toxicological issues for both international armed forces and those corporations willing to learn from these important lessons."--BOOK JACKET.
Bibliographic references:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
  • Chapter 1. Air Force-Related Jet Fuel Toxicology Research (1991-2010) -- Introduction -- Jet Fuel Use by the Military -- JP-8 Exposures and Health Concerns -- 1996 Report by the National Research Council (NRC): Recommendations for JP-8 Toxicology Research -- AFOSR JP-8 Toxicology Program: Research Thrusts and Approaches -- Inhalation of JP-8 Aerosols, Lung Damage, and Immune System Suppression -- Dermal Application of JP-8 and Immune System Suppression -- Mechanisms and Inhibitors of JP-8-induced Immune System Suppression -- Mechanisms and Inhibitors of JP-8-induced Cellular Toxicity in Lung, Immune, and Skin Cells -- Air Force (AF) Concern and Response to Potential Health Effects of JP-8: The AF JP-8 Acute Human Study -- 2003 Report by the National Research Council: Recommendation for Further Research on JP-8 Toxicology -- Response of AFOSR-Funded JP-8 Toxicology Research to the 2003 NRC Recommendations (Items 1 to 8) -- Commentary on Jet Fuel Toxicity and Compliance with PEL Standards and Exposure Safeguards -- Toxicology and Future Jet Fuels -- AFOSR Jet Fuel Toxicology Program: Summation and Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 2. Jet Fuel Composition / Walter J. Kozumbo -- Jet Fuel Composition: JP-8, Jet A, and Jet A-1 -- Alternative (Non-Petroleum) Jet Fuels -- References -- Chapter 3. The Toxicity and Underlying Mechanism of Jet Propulsion Fuel-8 on the Respiratory System / Tim Edwards and Simon S. Wong -- Introduction -- Morphological Alterations -- Neuro-Immunological Responses -- Cellular Toxicity -- Proteomic and Genomic Changes -- Synthetic Jet Fuel S-8 -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 4. Neurotoxicological and Neurobehavioral Effects from Exposure to Jet Fuels / Mark L. Witten -- Introduction -- Jet Fuel Exposure Studies in Humans and Animals -- Animal Studies -- Cognitive and Neurobehavioral Studies in Animals -- Ocular and Dermal System Toxicity in Animals -- Peripheral Auditory System Effects in Animals -- Human Studies -- Cognitive and Neurobehavioral Studies in Humans -- Ocular System Effects in Humans -- Peripheral and Central Auditory System Effects in Humans -- Vestibular System Effects in Humans -- In Vitro Studies -- Neurotoxicity from Exposure to Jet Fuel Exhaust -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 5. Differential Protein Expression Following JP-8 Jet Fuel Exposure / Glenn D. Ritchie and Frank A. Witzmann -- Introduction -- The 2-DE Gel-Based Proteomic Approach -- Electrophoresis, Image Analysis, and Protein Identification -- Short-Term JP-8 Aerosol Exposure -- Lung Proteomics -- Moderate Concentration/Duration JP-8 Exposures -- Lung Proteomics -- Renal Proteomics -- Effects of Long-Term JP-8 Vapor Exposure -- Testis Proteomics -- Persisting Effects of JP-8 Vapor Exposure, Following a Period of Recovery -- Label-Free Quantitative Mass Spectrometry (LFQMS): Alternative to 2-DE -- Overall Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 6. Immune Modulation by Dermal Exposure to Jet Fuel / Mark L. Witten and Gerardo Ramos -- Introduction -- Immune Modulation Following Dermal Application of Jet Fuel -- Mechanisms Underlying Jet-Fuel-Induced Immunotoxicity -- Cytokines and Immune-Modulatory Factors Activate Jet Fuel-Induced Immune Suppression -- The Aromatic Compounds in Jet Fuel Drive Immune Suppression -- Are Humans at Risk Following Dermal Exposure to Jet Fuel? -- Immune Modulation by Other Routes of Exposure -- Summary and Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 7. Absorption, Penetration, and Cutaneous Toxicity of Jet Fuels and Hydrocarbon Components / Stephen E. Ullrich, James E. Riviere and Alfred O. Inman -- Introduction -- In Vitro Studies -- In Vivo Studies -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 8. Methods of Assessing Skin Irritation and Sensitization of Jet Fuels / Nancy Monteiro-Riviere, R. Jayachandra Babu and Ram Patlolla -- Introduction -- Biophysical Methods of Assessing Skin Irritation of Jet Fuels -- Biochemical Methods of Assessing Skin Irritation of Jet Fuels -- Biomarker Measurements in Animals -- Biomarker Measurements in the Cultured Skin Tissue -- Dermal Microdialysis of Neuropeptides and Cytokines -- Skin Sensitization and Immune Suppression of Jet Fuels -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 9. Understanding Systemic and Local Toxicity of JP-8 after Cutaneous Exposures / Mandip Singh, James N. McDougal and James V. Rogers -- Introduction -- Systemic Toxicity -- In Vitro Skin Penetration Studies -- Route-to-Route Extrapolation -- Local Toxicity -- Skin Sensitization -- Skin Cancer -- Skin Irritation -- Gene Expression -- Basal Gene Expression in the Rat -- Brief Exposure Studies with Rats -- Comparisons of JP-8 with Other Chemicals -- Brief Exposure Studies with Human Volunteers -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 10. The Effects of Aerosolized JP-8 Jet Fuel Exposure on the Immune System: A Review / Richard Simman -- Overview -- Introduction -- Review of the Effects on the Immune System -- General Effects -- Effects on Cellular Immunity -- IL-10 and Prostaglandin E2 Secretion -- New Exposure System Effects -- The Effects of Jet Fuel Source -- Genomic Analyses -- Remedial Effects of Substance P Therapy -- General Effects -- Pre or Post Exposure Effects -- Dose Responses -- Potential Real-World Consequences -- In Utero Exposures -- Influenza -- Cancer -- Other -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 11. The Involvement of Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in Defense against JP-8 Jet Fuel and Other Chemical Toxicants / David T. Harris, Luis A. Espinoza, Aria Attia and Eric M. Brandon -- Introduction -- Cell Type Specificity of JP-8 Toxicity -- JP-8-Induced Changes in Gene Expression Profiles of Human Cells -- Transcriptional Profiling of the JP-8 Response in Lymphocytes -- Transcriptional Profiling of the JP-8 Response in Keratinocytes -- Transcriptional Profiling of the Rat Lung Response to JP-8 -- Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 Is Activated by JP-8 in Pulmonary Cells -- Effects of JP-8 on Cell Viability of Respiratory Epithelial Cells -- Effects of JP-8 on Phosphorylation and Degradation of IxBa in Epithelial Cells -- JP-8 Prolongs NF-icB Activation of Pulmonary Cells -- Effect of JP-8 on the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators -- JP-8 Induces PARP-1 Activation -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 12. Evaluation of Methods Used to Generate and Characterize Jet Fuel Vapor and Aerosol for Inhalation Toxicology Studies / Mark E. Smulson, Raphael T. Tremblay and Sheppard A. Martin -- Introduction -- Issues Associated with the Generation of a Jet Fuel Atmosphere -- Generation of a Jet Fuel Atmosphere -- Heated Tube -- Bubbler System -- Atomizers -- Ultrasonic Nebulizer -- Conclusions on Generation Systems -- Chamber Atmosphere Characterizations -- Gas-Phase Characterization -- Total Hydrocarbon (THC) Analyzer -- Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection -- Infrared Spectroscopy -- Adsorbent Tubes -- Aerosol Characterization -- Filters -- Adsorbent Tube -- Optical Aerosol Measurement -- Aerosol Size Determination -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 13. Genetic Damage in the Blood and Bone Marrow of Mice Treated with JP-8 Jet Fuel / Jeffrey W. Fisher -- Introduction -- Materials and Methods -- JP-8 Treatment(s) and Tissue Collection Schedule(s) for Group 2 Mice -- Results -- Discussion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 14. Computational Analyses of JP-8 Fuel Droplet and Vapor Depositions in Human Upper Airway Models / Vijayalaxmi and Clement Kleinstreuer -- Introduction -- Theory -- Airway Geometries -- Governing Equations -- Airflow and Heat Transfer -- Transport of Micro-size Droplets -- Droplet Evaporation -- Mass Transfer of Vapor or Nanoparticles -- Deposition Parameters -- Numerical Method -- Results -- Model Validations -- Airflow Structures -- Nasal Flow --
  • Oral-Tracheobronchial Flow -- Vapor Deposition -- Nasal Deposition -- Oral and Tracheobronchial Deposition -- Impact of Airway Wall Absorption Parameter IC -- Droplet Dynamics -- Single-Component Droplet Vaporization and Deposition -- Airway Geometry Effects -- Development of Droplet Vaporization Model and JP-8 Fuel Surrogate -- Transport and Deposition of Multicomponent Droplets -- Deposition Comparisons between Vapor (Nanoparticles) and Micron Particles (Droplets) -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 15. Human Exposure to Jet Propellant-8 / Zhe Zhang and Raymond H. Tu -- Introduction -- Occupational Exposure to JP-8 -- JP-8 Exposure Assessment -- Ambient Air Measurements -- Dermal Estimation of Exposure -- Inhalation Estimation of Exposure -- Human Health Effects of Exposure -- Conclusions -- References.
Jet planesFuelToxicology [Browse]
  • 9781420080209 (hardcover : alk. paper)
  • 1420080202 (hardcover : alk. paper)
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