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Cognition and conditionals : probability and logic in human thinking / edited by Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater.
Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2010.
viii, 410 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Thought and thinking
Grammar, Comparative and general
Oaksford, M. (Mike)
"The conditional, if...then, is probably the most important term in natural language and forms the core of systems of logic and mental representation. It occurs in all human languages and allows people to express their knowledge of the causal or law-like structure of the world and of others' behaviour, e.g., if you turn the key the car starts, if John walks the dog he stops for a pint of beer; to make promises, e.g., if you cook tonight, I'll wash up all week; to regulate behaviour, e.g., if you are drinking beer, you must be over 18 years of age; to suggest what would have happened had things been different, e.g., if the match had been dry it would have lit, among many other possible uses. The way in which the conditional is modelled also determines the core of most logical systems. Unsurprisingly, it is also the most researched expression in the psychology of human reasoning. Cognition and Conditionals is the first volume for over 20 years (On Conditionals, 1986, CUP) that brings together recent developments in the cognitive science and psychology of conditional reasoning. Over the last 10 to 15 years, research on conditionals has come to dominate the psychology of reasoning providing a rich seam of results that have created new theoretical possibilities. This book shows how these developments have led researchers to view people's conditional reasoning behaviour more as succesful probabilistic reasoning rather than as errorful logical reasoning. It shows how the multifarious, and apparently competing, theoretical positions developed over the last 50 years in this area - mental logics, mental models, heuristic approaches, dual process theory, and probabilistic approaches-have responded to these insights. Its organisation reflects the view that an integrative approach is emerging that may need to exploit aspects of all these theoretical positions to explain the rich and complex phenomenon of reasoning with conditionals. It includes an introductory chapter relating the development of the psychology of reasoning to developments in the logic and semantics of the conditional. It also includes chapters by many of the leading figures in this field. Cognition and Conditionals will be a valuable resource for cognitive scientists, psychologists and philosophers interested how people actually reason with conditionals"--Provided by publisher.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Cognition and conditionals : an introduction / Mike Oaksford and Nick Chater
Working memory : function, representation, and process. Logic. The mental logic theory of conditional propositions / David O'Brien and Andrea Manfrinati ; Conditionals and possibilities / Ruth M.J. Byrne and Philip N. Johnson-Laird ; Logic and/in psychology : the paradoxes of material implication and psychologism in the cognitive science of human reasoning / Walter Schroyens ; The logical response to a noisy world / Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen
Probability. Conditionals and probability / Vittorio Girotto and Phil Johnson-Laird ; Causal discounting and conditional reasoning in children / Nilufa Ali ... [et al.] ; Conditionals and non-constructive reasoning / David E. Over, Jonathan St. B.T. Evans, and Shira Elqayam ; The conditional in mental probability logic / Niki Pfeifer and Gernot Kleiter
Long term memory : function, representation, and process. Logic. Semantic memory retrieval, mental models, and the development of conditional inferences in children / Henry Markovits ; Counterexample retrieval and inhibition during conditional reasoning : direct evidence from memory probing / Wim De Neys
Probability. How semantic memory processes temper causal inferences / Denise Cummins ; A successive-conditionalization approach to conditional reasoning / In-mao Liu ; Pragmatic conditionals, conditional pragmatics, and the pragmatic component of conditional reasoning / Jean-François Bonnefon and Guy Politzer
Integrative approaches. Reasoning with conditionals in artificial intelligence / Robert Kowalski ; Towards a reconciliation of mental model theory and probabilistic theories of conditionals / Sonja M. Geiger and Klaus Oberauer ; Conditional inference and constraint satisfaction : reconciling mental models and the probabilistic approach / Mike Oaksford and Nick Chater ; Towards a metacognitive dual process theory of conditional reasoning / Valerie A. Thompson ; A multi-layered dual-process approach to conditional reasoning / Niki Verschueren and Walter Schaeken ; Two aspects of reasoning competence : a challenge for current accounts and a call for new conceptual tools / Guy Politzer and Jean-François Bonnefon
Epilogue. Open issues in the cognitive science of conditionals / Nick Chater and Mike Oaksford.
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9780199233298 (hardback : alk. paper)
0199233292 (hardback : alk. paper)
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Cognition and conditionals : probability and logic in human thinking