Advanced nanocatalysts for biodiesel production / edited by Bhaskar Singh and Ramesh Oraon.

Format
Book
Language
English
Published/​Created
  • Boca Raton ; London : CRC Press, [2023]
  • ©2023
Description
1 online resource (319 pages)

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Subject(s)
Editor
Summary note
"Advanced Nanocatalysts for Biodiesel Production is a comprehensive and advanced book on practical and theoretical concepts of nanocatalyst dealing with future processing techniques towards environmental sustainability. The book critically discusses on latest emerging advanced nanocatalyst for biodiesel production aimed at reducing complexities and cost in the quest of future energy demand. Efforts have been made on clarifying the scope and limitations of biodiesel production in large scale commercialization. The book discusses the size dependent catalytic property of nanomaterials and their working mechanism in biodiesel production. Life cycle assessment of optimized viable feedstock from domestic as well as industrial waste has also been addressed to improve the efficiency of biodiesel production. The book will be a valuable reference source for researchers and industrial professionals focusing on elementary depth analysis on account of nanocatalyst's multifunctional technological applications in seeking key idea of mimicking biodiesel production towards ecology to economy. Key Features Provides a comprehensive environmental assessment of advanced nanocatalyst for biodiesel production in world's energy demand supply. Discusses the green platform based nanocatalyst like metal oxides/sulphides, 2D-dimensional layered material synthesis and their relevance for biodiesel production. Presents pathway for a cheaper, cleaner and environmentally friendly processing techniques for biodiesel production"-- Provided by publisher.
Bibliographic references
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Source of description
Description based on print version record.
Contents
  • Cover
  • Half Title
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Editors
  • Contributors
  • 1 Energy: Present and Future Demands
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Types of Energy Sources
  • 1.2.1 Conventional Or Non-Renewable Sources of Energy
  • 1.2.2 Non-Conventional Or Renewable and Clean Sources of Energy
  • 1.3 Energy Demand: Present and Future Scenario
  • 1.4 Transformation of the Energy Sector: Conventional to Clean and Alternate Sources of Energy
  • 1.5 Biofuel
  • 1.6 Conclusion
  • 1.6.1 Challenges
  • 1.6.1.1 Demand and Supply of Energy
  • 1.6.1.2 Technology Advancements and Energy Efficiency
  • 1.6.1.3 Limited Resources and Environmental Degradation
  • 1.6.1.4 Favourable Markets, Prices and Policy Mechanisms
  • 1.6.1.5 Extreme Weather and Climatic Conditions
  • 1.6.1.6 Waste Management
  • 1.7 The Road Ahead
  • References
  • 2 Biodiesel From First-Generation Feedstock: Scope and Limitations
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.1.1 Generation of Biodiesel
  • 2.1.2 Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production
  • 2.2 First-Generation Biodiesel
  • 2.2.1 The Feedstock of First-Generation Biodiesel
  • 2.2.1.1 Soybean (Glycine Max)
  • 2.2.1.2 Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus)
  • 2.2.1.3 Coconut (Cocos Nucifera)
  • 2.2.1.4 Palm Oil (Arecaceae)
  • 2.2.2 Biodiesel Production Method Steps
  • 2.2.3 Biodiesel Yield
  • 2.2.4 Biodiesel Properties and Standards
  • 2.2.4.1 Biodiesel Yield and Characteristics
  • 2.2.4.2 Standards of Biodiesel
  • 2.3 Scope and Limitations of Biodiesel
  • 2.3.1 Challenges for Sustainable Biodiesel Production
  • 2.3.2 Current Perspective and Future Trends
  • 2.4 Conclusion
  • 3 Biodiesel From Second-Generation Feedstock:: Role of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) as a Viable Feedstock
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Biodiesel
  • 3.3 Second-Generation Feedstock for Biodiesel Production.
  • 3.3.1 Effect of Fatty Acid Composition On BD Fuel Properties
  • 3.3.1.1 Effect of Unsaturation
  • 3.3.1.2 Effect of Carbon Chain Length
  • 3.4 Alcohol Used for Biodiesel Production
  • 3.5 Catalysts for Second-Generation Feedstock
  • 3.5.1 Homogeneous Catalysts
  • 3.5.2 Heterogeneous Acid Catalysts
  • 3.5.2.1 Sulphated Metal Oxides
  • 3.5.2.2 Mesoporous Silica
  • 3.5.2.3 Heteropolyacids
  • 3.5.2.4 Miscellaneous Solid Acids
  • 3.5.3 Heterogeneous Base Catalysts
  • 3.5.3.1 Alkaline Earth Oxides
  • 3.5.3.2 Alkali-Doped Metal Oxides
  • 3.5.3.3 Transition Metal Oxides
  • 3.5.3.4 Hydrotalcites
  • 3.6 Properties of the Biodiesel Produced From Second-Generation Feedstock
  • 3.7 Current Scenario
  • 3.8 Conclusions and Future Aspects
  • Acknowledgement
  • 4 Role of Catalysts and Their Mechanisms in Biodiesel Synthesis With Reference to Nanomaterials
  • 4.1 Introduction: Background and Latest Developments
  • 4.2 Role of Nanocatalysts in Biodiesel Production
  • 4.2.1 Chemical Catalysis
  • 4.2.2 Heterogeneous Nanocatalysts in Biodiesel Production
  • 4.2.3 Recent Prospects
  • 4.3 Synthesis of Nanocatalysts for Biodiesel Production
  • 4.3.1 Doping Via the Co-Precipitation Method
  • 4.3.2 Wet Impregnation
  • 4.3.3 Chemical Functionalization Or Immobilization
  • 4.4 Mechanism of Nanomaterials as Catalysts in Biodiesel Synthesis
  • 4.4.1 Solid Base-Catalysed Reaction
  • 4.4.2 Solid Acidic-Catalysed Reaction
  • 4.5 Conclusions
  • 5 Metal Oxide/Sulphide-Based Nanocatalysts in Biodiesel Synthesis
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Metal Oxide-Based Nanocatalyst Preparation
  • 5.2.1 Chemical Precipitation/Co-Precipitation Methods
  • 5.2.2 Solvothermal Method
  • 5.2.3 Sol-Gel Method
  • 5.2.4 Impregnation Method
  • 5.2.5 Combustion Synthesis Method
  • 5.2.6 Microwave Synthesis
  • 5.3 Nanoparticle Characterization.
  • 5.3.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
  • 5.3.2 X-Ray Diffraction
  • 5.3.3 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
  • 5.3.4 Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)
  • 5.3.5 BET and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD)
  • 5.3.6 Energy-Dispersive and Photoelectron X-Ray Spectroscopies
  • 5.4 Performance and Advantage of Nanocatalysts in Biodiesel Production
  • 5.5 Nanocatalyst Reusability and Leaching Analysis
  • 5.6 Metal Sulphides
  • 5.7 Conclusion
  • 6 Magnetic Nanomaterials and Their Relevance in Transesterification Reactions
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Fundamental Aspects of Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs)
  • 6.3 Methods of Synthesis of MNPs
  • 6.3.1 Co-Precipitation Method
  • 6.3.2 Hydrothermal Method
  • 6.3.3 Sol-Gel Method
  • 6.3.4 Combustion Synthesis Method
  • 6.4 Characterization of MNPs
  • 6.4.1 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction (EDXD)
  • 6.4.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
  • 6.4.3 N2 Adsorption-Desorption Technique
  • 6.4.4 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
  • 6.4.5 Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM)
  • 6.4.6 Zeta Potential Analysis
  • 6.4.7 Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) Technique
  • 6.5 Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Transesterification Reactions
  • 6.6 Influence of Parameters in Transesterification Reactions for Biodiesel Production
  • 6.6.1 Effect of Catalyst (MNPs) Amount
  • 6.6.2 Effect of Alcohol/Oil Molar Ratio
  • 6.6.3 Reaction Time
  • 6.6.4 Reaction Temperature
  • 6.7 Recovery and Recycling of MNPs During Transesterification
  • 6.8 Challenges of MNPs in Transesterification
  • 6.9 Conclusions and Future Outlook
  • Conflicts of Interest
  • Authors' Contributions
  • 7 Biomaterial-Based Nanocatalysts in Biodiesel Synthesis
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Biodiesel Synthesis.
  • 7.3 Biomaterial-Based Nanocatalysts
  • 7.3.1 Biomass-Based Nanocatalysts From Agro-Industrial Wastes
  • 7.3.2 CaO-Based Nanocatalysts
  • 7.3.3 Disadvantages of Bio-Based Nanocatalysts
  • 7.4 Optimization of Biodiesel Synthesis
  • 7.4.1 Temperature
  • 7.4.2 Reaction Time
  • 7.4.3 Alcohol: Oil Molar Ratio
  • 7.4.4 Catalyst Load
  • 7.5 Conclusion
  • Notes
  • 8 Two-Dimensional (2D) Layered Materials as Emerging Nanocatalysts in the Production of Biodiesel
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.1.1 Classification of Layered Materials
  • 8.1.2 Two-Dimensional Layered Materials (2DLMs)
  • 8.2 Synthesis of 2D Layered Materials
  • 8.2.1 Mechanical Exfoliation
  • 8.2.2 Ultrasonic Exfoliation
  • 8.2.3 Chemical Vapour Transport
  • 8.2.4 Wet Chemical Strategy
  • 8.3 Role of 2D Layered Materials as Catalyst Support
  • 8.4 Catalytic Activity of Nanoparticles Supported With 2D Layered Materials
  • 8.4.1 Graphene
  • 8.4.2 Graphitic Carbon Nitride (g-C3N4)
  • 8.4.3 Hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN)
  • 8.5 Prospects and Future Research Directions
  • 8.6 Conclusion
  • 9 Size-Dependent Catalytic Properties of Nanomaterials, Their Suitability in Terms of Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Sustainability
  • 9.1 Introduction: Nanomaterials and Their Alluring Features
  • 9.2 Synthesis and Characterization of Nanomaterials
  • 9.3 Nanomaterials: Surface Chemistry and Catalytic Activity
  • 9.3.1 Size-Dependent Catalytic Properties of Nanomaterials
  • 9.3.2 Size-Dependent Electronic and Structural Parameters of the Surface of a Metal Catalyst
  • 9.3.3 Size-Dependent Adsorption and Activation Energy
  • 9.4 Nanomaterials: Suitability in Terms of Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Sustainability
  • 9.5 Concluding Remarks
  • 10 Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products in Various Industrial Applications
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Main By-Product: Crude Glycerol.
  • 10.2.1 Direct Applications
  • 10.2.2 Indirect Applications (As a Precursor Molecule)
  • 10.3 Macro By-Products
  • 10.3.1 WasteWater
  • 10.3.2 Oil-Cake
  • 10.3.3 Methanol
  • 10.4 Micro By-Products
  • 10.4.1 Ion-Exchange Resin Sediment
  • 10.4.2 Magnesium Silicate Sediment
  • 10.4.3 Oil Sediment
  • 10.5 Conclusion
  • 11 A Life Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Production
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 First- and Second-Generation Biodiesel
  • 11.2.1 Soybean
  • 11.2.2 Palm
  • 11.2.3 Rapeseed
  • 11.2.4 Sunflower
  • 11.2.5 Jatropha
  • 11.3 Third-Generation Biodiesel
  • 11.3.1 Microalgae
  • 11.3.2 Oleaginous Yeast
  • 11.3.3 Waste-Activated Sludge
  • 11.4 Specification and Legal Standards for Biodiesel
  • 11.5 Beyond Sustainability
  • 11.6 Conclusion
  • 12 Role of Nanocatalysts in Biofuel Production and Comparison With Traditional Catalysts
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Fuels (Alcohol/Biodiesel) Can Replace Fossil Fuels Or Petroleum-Based Fuel
  • 12.2.1 Biofuels
  • 12.2.2 Classification of Biofuels
  • 12.2.2.1 First-Generation Biofuels
  • 12.2.2.2 Second-Generation Biofuels
  • 12.2.2.3 Third-Generation Biofuels
  • 12.3 Types of Promising Catalysts Used for the Production of Biofuels
  • 12.3.1 Homogeneous Catalysts
  • 12.3.2 Homogeneous Alkaline Catalysts
  • 12.3.3 Homogeneous Acidic Catalysts
  • 12.3.4 Heterogeneous Catalysts
  • 12.3.5 Heterogeneous Alkaline Catalysts
  • 12.3.6 Heterogeneous Acidic Catalysts
  • 12.4 Biocatalysts
  • 12.5 Nanocatalysts
  • 12.6 Nanomaterials Used in Biofuel Production
  • 12.6.1 Nanomaterials
  • 12.6.2 Nanoparticles Used in Biofuel Production
  • 12.6.2.1 Magnetic Nanoparticles
  • 12.6.2.2 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)
  • 12.6.2.3 Other Nanoparticles
  • 12.7 Conclusion
  • Index.
ISBN
  • 1-00-312085-7
  • 1-003-12085-7
  • 1-000-63672-0
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