Land Matters : Can Better Governance and Management of Scarcity Prevent a Looming Crisis in the Middle East and North Africa?.

Corsi, Anna [Browse]
1st ed.
  • Namur : World Bank Publications, 2023.
  • ©2022.
1 online resource (131 pages)


World Bank e-Library. [More in this series]
Summary note
Across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), land is scarce and valuable. Demand for land is projected to dramatically increase to meet the needs of a fast-growing urban population. At the same time, the supply of land is restricted by weak governance and climate factors, causing the quasi-exhaustion of cultivable land reserves. As a result, a crisis is looming. Yet, land continues to be used inefficiently, inequitably, and unsustainably. Land Matters identifies and analyzes the economic, environmental, and social challenges associated with land in the MENA region, shedding light on policy options and proposing paths to reform. It concludes that MENA countries need to act promptly, think more holistically about land, reassess the strategic trade-offs, and minimize land distortions. This report promotes a culture of open data, transparency, and inclusive dialogue on land, while filling major data gaps. These important steps will contribute to renewing the social contract, transforming the region economically and digitally, improving women's land rights, and facilitating recovery and reconstruction in a context of dramatic social, political, and climatic transformation.
Source of description
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.
  • Front Cover
  • Contents
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Authors and Contributors
  • Executive Summary
  • Abbreviations
  • Glossary of Arabic Terms
  • Introduction
  • Framework for a Discussion of Land Issues
  • Chapter 1 Land Scarcity, Land Use Dynamics, and Land Use Issues in the MENA Region
  • Land Use in the MENA Region: Historical Trends and Current Situation
  • Key Drivers of Land Use Patterns in MENA Countries
  • Future Trends and Impacts on the Demand for Land
  • Annex 1A: The Potential for Cropland Expansion
  • Annex 1B: The Determinants of Global Land Degradation
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Legal, Institutional, and Governance Challenges Facing Land Use in MENA Countries
  • Historical Foundations of Legal Frameworks in the MENA Region
  • Land Governance Challenges
  • Land Administration Challenges
  • Chapter 3 Barriers to Accessing Land in the MENA Region
  • Firms' Difficulties in Accessing Land
  • Women's Difficulties in Accessing Land
  • Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons, and Their Land and Property Rights
  • Annex 3A: The Role of Political Connections in Facilitating Access to Land in Tunisia and Egypt
  • Chapter 4 Market Distortions and Land Use Inefficiencies in the MENA Region
  • Expanded Conceptual Framework
  • Land Distortions in MENA Economies
  • Policies
  • Annex 4A: The Distribution of Farmland
  • Chapter 5 Land Policy Challenges and Options in the MENA Region
  • A Country Taxonomy of Challenges
  • Improving Land Administration and Tenure
  • Mobilizing Revenue from Land
  • Better Managing Public Land
  • Managing Agricultural Land: Policies and Strategic Objectives
  • Responding to Urban Land Needs.
  • Promoting Equal Access to Land for Women and Vulnerable Groups
  • Annex 5A: Taxonomy of MENA Countries-Land Issues
  • Conclusion and Priorities for Reform
  • Boxes
  • Box 1.1 FAOSTAT and MODIS Land Cover Type data sets
  • Box 1.2 The drivers of global cropland loss
  • Box 1.3 The impact of the Syrian conflict on cultivated land
  • Box 2.1 Land tenure categories under the Ottoman Land Code of 1858
  • Box 2.2 The complexities of the Arab Republic of Egypt's deed and title registration systems
  • Box 2.3 Components of the Registering Property index
  • Box 2.4 Components of the Quality of Land Administration index
  • Box 5.1 Inheritance reform in the Arab Republic of Egypt
  • Box 5.2 The Soulalyat mobilization for collective rural land in Morocco
  • Box 5.3 Inheritance reform in the Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Figures
  • Figure I.1 Conceptual framework for land issues, MENA
  • Figure I.2 Centrality of the land nexus
  • Figure 1.1 Land cover breakdown, by region
  • Figure 1.2 Area under permanent crops and arable land and cropland area per capita, by region, 2018 (FAOSTAT)
  • Figure 1.3 Cropland and cropland mosaic, by region, 2018 (MODIS)
  • Figure 1.4 Cropland and cropland mosaic, MENA, 2018 (MODIS)
  • Figure 1.5 Cropland exposure to drought, by all regions and MENA region, 2003-18
  • Figure 1.6 Land use conversion, MENA, 2003-18
  • Figure 1.7 Growth in land consumption and urban population, MENA and rest of the world, 2000-2015
  • Figure 1.8 The effects of land scarcity and land governance on cropland loss, by region
  • Figure B1.3.1 Reduction in cropland in the Syrian Arab Republic relative to Türkiye arising from the Syrian conflict, 2010-19
  • Figure 1.9 Availability of agricultural land per capita, MENA, 1961-2050
  • Figure 2.1 Land under public ownership index, by region.
  • Figure 2.2 Corruption and poor protection of property rights, by all regions and MENA region
  • Figure 2.3 Property taxation, by region and selected economies, 2020
  • Figure 2.4 Registering Property scores, by region and MENA country/economy, 2020
  • Figure 2.5 Quality of Land Administration indexes, by region and MENA country/economy, 2020
  • Figure 2.6 Quality of Land Administration (QLA) scores, GDP per capita, and population, MENA
  • Figure 2.7 Geographic Coverage scores, MENA, 2020
  • Figure 3.1 Firms finding access to land a major or severe constraint, by region and country/economy
  • Figure 3.2 Share of politically connected firms, by region and MENA country/economy, 2019 and 2020
  • Figure 3.3 Share of firms reporting severe constraints in access to land, by political connection status, the Arab Republic of Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia, 2019 and 2020
  • Figure 3.4 Gender differences in perceived tenure insecurity in the event of a divorce or death of spouse, MENA
  • Figure 3.5 Number of inheritance cases related to exclusion of heirs in shari'a courts, Jordan, 2010-20
  • Figure 3.6 Evolution of the share of inheritance cases related to exclusion of heirs in shari'a courts, Jordan, 2010-20
  • Figure 3.7 Gender equality in legal frameworks governing property and inheritance, by region, 1970-2020
  • Figure 3.8 Gender inequality and quality of land administration, MENA and rest of the world
  • Figure 4.1 Conceptual framework for land misallocation, MENA
  • Figure 4.2 Mortgage loans, MENA, 2015
  • Figure 4.3 Housing loan penetration and registration coverage, MENA and rest of the world
  • Figure 4.4 Slums and cost of property registration, MENA and rest of the world
  • Figure 4.5 Egyptian industrial zones, by distance from cities with more than 200,000 residents and year of creation, 1927-2020.
  • Figure 4.6 Utilization rate of Egyptian industrial zones, by distance from cities with more than 200,000 residents and length of time since creation
  • Figure 4.7 Total area sold before and after implementation of vacant land tax in four cities, Saudi Arabia
  • Figure 4A.1 Distribution of agricultural land, MENA, various years
  • Figure 5.1 MENA country taxonomy according to land availability, weak land governance, and demographic pressure
  • Figure 5.2 Wheat harvested area and wheat imports, Saudi Arabia, 1961-2018
  • Maps
  • Map 1.1 Land cover change on each side of the Syrian Arab Republic-Türkiye border, 2009-17
  • Map 2.1 Land reportedly owned by the military, Algiers, Algeria
  • Tables
  • Table 1.1 Movements in and out of cropland, by region, 2003-18
  • Table 1A.1 Land under cultivation and potential for expansion (seven major international crops), by region
  • Table 1B.1 Determinants of global land degradation (stage 1)
  • Table 1B.2 Determinants of global land degradation (stage 2)
  • Table 2.1 Registering Property index rankings, MENA, 2020
  • Table 2.2 Quality of Land Administration index scores, MENA, 2020
  • Table 3A.1 Effects of regime change on land access constraints, the Arab Republic of Egypt and Tunisia
  • Table 5A.1 Selected indicators, MENA
  • Table 5A.2 Component loadings.
Other standard number
  • 10.1596/978-1-4648-1661-1
Statement on language in description
Princeton University Library aims to describe library materials in a manner that is respectful to the individuals and communities who create, use, and are represented in the collections we manage. Read more...
Other views
Staff view