An introduction to statistical learning : with applications in R / Gareth James [and three others].

Author
James, Gareth [Browse]
Format
Book
Language
English
Εdition
2nd ed.
Published/​Created
  • New York, New York : Springer, [2021]
  • ©2021
Description
1 online resource (xv, 607 p : il. col.)

Details

Subject(s)
Series
Summary note
Presents an essential statistical learning toolkit for practitioners in science, industry, and other fields. Demonstrates application of the statistical learning methods in R. Includes new chapters on deep learning, survival analysis, and multiple testing. Covers a range of topics, such as linear regression, classification, resampling methods, shrinkage approaches, tree-based methods, support vector machines, clustering, and deep learning. Features extensive color graphics for a dynamic learning experience.
Notes
Includes index.
Source of description
Description based on print version record.
Contents
  • Intro -- Preface -- Contents -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Statistical Learning -- 2.1 What Is Statistical Learning? -- 2.1.1 Why Estimate f? -- 2.1.2 How Do We Estimate f? -- 2.1.3 The Trade-Off Between Prediction Accuracy and Model Interpretability -- 2.1.4 Supervised Versus Unsupervised Learning -- 2.1.5 Regression Versus Classification Problems -- 2.2 Assessing Model Accuracy -- 2.2.1 Measuring the Quality of Fit -- 2.2.2 The Bias-Variance Trade-Off -- 2.2.3 The Classification Setting -- 2.3 Lab: Introduction to R -- 2.3.1 Basic Commands -- 2.3.2 Graphics -- 2.3.3 Indexing Data -- 2.3.4 Loading Data -- 2.3.5 Additional Graphical and Numerical Summaries -- 2.4 Exercises -- 3 Linear Regression -- 3.1 Simple Linear Regression -- 3.1.1 Estimating the Coefficients -- 3.1.2 Assessing the Accuracy of the Coefficients Estimates -- 3.1.3 Assessing the Accuracy of the Model -- 3.2 Multiple Linear Regression -- 3.2.1 Estimating the Regression Coefficients -- 3.2.2 Some Important Questions -- 3.3 Other Considerations in the Regression Model -- 3.3.1 Qualitative Predictors -- 3.3.2 Extensions of the Linear Model -- 3.3.3 Potential Problems -- 3.4 The Marketing Plan -- 3.5 Comparison of Linear Regression with K-Nearest Neighbors -- 3.6 Lab: Linear Regression -- 3.6.1 Libraries -- 3.6.2 Simple Linear Regression -- 3.6.3 Multiple Linear Regression -- 3.6.4 Interaction Terms -- 3.6.5 Non-linear Transformations of the Predictors -- 3.6.6 Qualitative Predictors -- 3.6.7 Writing Functions -- 3.7 Exercises -- 4 Classification -- 4.1 An Overview of Classification -- 4.2 Why Not Linear Regression? -- 4.3 Logistic Regression -- 4.3.1 The Logistic Model -- 4.3.2 Estimating the Regression Coefficients -- 4.3.3 Making Predictions -- 4.3.4 Multiple Logistic Regression -- 4.3.5 Multinomial Logistic Regression -- 4.4 Generative Models for Classification.
  • 4.4.1 Linear Discriminant Analysis for p = 1 -- 4.4.2 Linear Discriminant Analysis for p &gt -- 1 -- 4.4.3 Quadratic Discriminant Analysis -- 4.4.4 Naive Bayes -- 4.5 A Comparison of Classification Methods -- 4.5.1 An Analytical Comparison -- 4.5.2 An Empirical Comparison -- 4.6 Generalized Linear Models -- 4.6.1 Linear Regression on the Bikeshare Data -- 4.6.2 Poisson Regression on the Bikeshare Data -- 4.6.3 Generalized Linear Models in Greater Generality -- 4.7 Lab: Classification Methods -- 4.7.1 The Stock Market Data -- 4.7.2 Logistic Regression -- 4.7.3 Linear Discriminant Analysis -- 4.7.4 Quadratic Discriminant Analysis -- 4.7.5 Naive Bayes -- 4.7.6 K-Nearest Neighbors -- 4.7.7 Poisson Regression -- 4.8 Exercises -- 5 Resampling Methods -- 5.1 Cross-Validation -- 5.1.1 The Validation Set Approach -- 5.1.2 Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation -- 5.1.3 k-Fold Cross-Validation -- 5.1.4 Bias-Variance Trade-Off for k-Fold Cross-Validation -- 5.1.5 Cross-Validation on Classification Problems -- 5.2 The Bootstrap -- 5.3 Lab: Cross-Validation and the Bootstrap -- 5.3.1 The Validation Set Approach -- 5.3.2 Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation -- 5.3.3 k-Fold Cross-Validation -- 5.3.4 The Bootstrap -- 5.4 Exercises -- 6 Linear Model Selection and Regularization -- 6.1 Subset Selection -- 6.1.1 Best Subset Selection -- 6.1.2 Stepwise Selection -- 6.1.3 Choosing the Optimal Model -- 6.2 Shrinkage Methods -- 6.2.1 Ridge Regression -- 6.2.2 The Lasso -- 6.2.3 Selecting the Tuning Parameter -- 6.3 Dimension Reduction Methods -- 6.3.1 Principal Components Regression -- 6.3.2 Partial Least Squares -- 6.4 Considerations in High Dimensions -- 6.4.1 High-Dimensional Data -- 6.4.2 What Goes Wrong in High Dimensions? -- 6.4.3 Regression in High Dimensions -- 6.4.4 Interpreting Results in High Dimensions -- 6.5 Lab: Linear Models and Regularization Methods.
  • 6.5.1 Subset Selection Methods -- 6.5.2 Ridge Regression and the Lasso -- 6.5.3 PCR and PLS Regression -- 6.6 Exercises -- 7 Moving Beyond Linearity -- 7.1 Polynomial Regression -- 7.2 Step Functions -- 7.3 Basis Functions -- 7.4 Regression Splines -- 7.4.1 Piecewise Polynomials -- 7.4.2 Constraints and Splines -- 7.4.3 The Spline Basis Representation -- 7.4.4 Choosing the Number and Locations of the Knots -- 7.4.5 Comparison to Polynomial Regression -- 7.5 Smoothing Splines -- 7.5.1 An Overview of Smoothing Splines -- 7.5.2 Choosing the Smoothing Parameter λ -- 7.6 Local Regression -- 7.7 Generalized Additive Models -- 7.7.1 GAMs for Regression Problems -- 7.7.2 GAMs for Classification Problems -- 7.8 Lab: Non-linear Modeling -- 7.8.1 Polynomial Regression and Step Functions -- 7.8.2 Splines -- 7.8.3 GAMs -- 7.9 Exercises -- 8 Tree-Based Methods -- 8.1 The Basics of Decision Trees -- 8.1.1 Regression Trees -- 8.1.2 Classification Trees -- 8.1.3 Trees Versus Linear Models -- 8.1.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Trees -- 8.2 Bagging, Random Forests, Boosting, and Bayesian Additive Regression Trees -- 8.2.1 Bagging -- 8.2.2 Random Forests -- 8.2.3 Boosting -- 8.2.4 Bayesian Additive Regression Trees -- 8.2.5 Summary of Tree Ensemble Methods -- 8.3 Lab: Decision Trees -- 8.3.1 Fitting Classification Trees -- 8.3.2 Fitting Regression Trees -- 8.3.3 Bagging and Random Forests -- 8.3.4 Boosting -- 8.3.5 Bayesian Additive Regression Trees -- 8.4 Exercises -- 9 Support Vector Machines -- 9.1 Maximal Margin Classifier -- 9.1.1 What Is a Hyperplane? -- 9.1.2 Classification Using a Separating Hyperplane -- 9.1.3 The Maximal Margin Classifier -- 9.1.4 Construction of the Maximal Margin Classifier -- 9.1.5 The Non-separable Case -- 9.2 Support Vector Classifiers -- 9.2.1 Overview of the Support Vector Classifier -- 9.2.2 Details of the Support Vector Classifier.
  • 9.3 Support Vector Machines -- 9.3.1 Classification with Non-Linear Decision Boundaries -- 9.3.2 The Support Vector Machine -- 9.3.3 An Application to the Heart Disease Data -- 9.4 SVMs with More than Two Classes -- 9.4.1 One-Versus-One Classification -- 9.4.2 One-Versus-All Classification -- 9.5 Relationship to Logistic Regression -- 9.6 Lab: Support Vector Machines -- 9.6.1 Support Vector Classifier -- 9.6.2 Support Vector Machine -- 9.6.3 ROC Curves -- 9.6.4 SVM with Multiple Classes -- 9.6.5 Application to Gene Expression Data -- 9.7 Exercises -- 10 Deep Learning -- 10.1 Single Layer Neural Networks -- 10.2 Multilayer Neural Networks -- 10.3 Convolutional Neural Networks -- 10.3.1 Convolution Layers -- 10.3.2 Pooling Layers -- 10.3.3 Architecture of a Convolutional Neural Network -- 10.3.4 Data Augmentation -- 10.3.5 Results Using a Pretrained Classifier -- 10.4 Document Classification -- 10.5 Recurrent Neural Networks -- 10.5.1 Sequential Models for Document Classification -- 10.5.2 Time Series Forecasting -- 10.5.3 Summary of RNNs -- 10.6 When to Use Deep Learning -- 10.7 Fitting a Neural Network -- 10.7.1 Backpropagation -- 10.7.2 Regularization and Stochastic Gradient Descent -- 10.7.3 Dropout Learning -- 10.7.4 Network Tuning -- 10.8 Interpolation and Double Descent -- 10.9 Lab: Deep Learning -- 10.9.1 A Single Layer Network on the Hitters Data -- 10.9.2 A Multilayer Network on the MNIST Digit Data -- 10.9.3 Convolutional Neural Networks -- 10.9.4 Using Pretrained CNN Models -- 10.9.5 IMDb Document Classification -- 10.9.6 Recurrent Neural Networks -- 10.10 Exercises -- 11 Survival Analysis and Censored Data -- 11.1 Survival and Censoring Times -- 11.2 A Closer Look at Censoring -- 11.3 The Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve -- 11.4 The Log-Rank Test -- 11.5 Regression Models With a Survival Response -- 11.5.1 The Hazard Function.
  • 11.5.2 Proportional Hazards -- 11.5.3 Example: Brain Cancer Data -- 11.5.4 Example: Publication Data -- 11.6 Shrinkage for the Cox Model -- 11.7 Additional Topics -- 11.7.1 Area Under the Curve for Survival Analysis -- 11.7.2 Choice of Time Scale -- 11.7.3 Time-Dependent Covariates -- 11.7.4 Checking the Proportional Hazards Assumption -- 11.7.5 Survival Trees -- 11.8 Lab: Survival Analysis -- 11.8.1 Brain Cancer Data -- 11.8.2 Publication Data -- 11.8.3 Call Center Data -- 11.9 Exercises -- 12 Unsupervised Learning -- 12.1 The Challenge of Unsupervised Learning -- 12.2 Principal Components Analysis -- 12.2.1 What Are Principal Components? -- 12.2.2 Another Interpretation of Principal Components -- 12.2.3 The Proportion of Variance Explained -- 12.2.4 More on PCA -- 12.2.5 Other Uses for Principal Components -- 12.3 Missing Values and Matrix Completion -- 12.4 Clustering Methods -- 12.4.1 K-Means Clustering -- 12.4.2 Hierarchical Clustering -- 12.4.3 Practical Issues in Clustering -- 12.5 Lab: Unsupervised Learning -- 12.5.1 Principal Components Analysis -- 12.5.2 Matrix Completion -- 12.5.3 Clustering -- 12.5.4 NCI60 Data Example -- 12.6 Exercises -- 13 Multiple Testing -- 13.1 A Quick Review of Hypothesis Testing -- 13.1.1 Testing a Hypothesis -- 13.1.2 Type I and Type II Errors -- 13.2 The Challenge of Multiple Testing -- 13.3 The Family-Wise Error Rate -- 13.3.1 What is the Family-Wise Error Rate? -- 13.3.2 Approaches to Control the Family-Wise Error Rate -- 13.3.3 Trade-Off Between the FWER and Power -- 13.4 The False Discovery Rate -- 13.4.1 Intuition for the False Discovery Rate -- 13.4.2 The Benjamini-Hochberg Procedure -- 13.5 A Re-Sampling Approach to p-Values and False Discovery Rates -- 13.5.1 A Re-Sampling Approach to the p-Value -- 13.5.2 A Re-Sampling Approach to the False Discovery Rate.
  • 13.5.3 When Are Re-Sampling Approaches Useful?.
ISBN
1-0716-1418-5
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