Microscopic Methods in Metals [electronic resource] / edited by Ulrich Gonser.

Format
Book
Language
English
Εdition
1st ed. 1986.
Published/​Created
Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg : Imprint: Springer, 1986.
Description
1 online resource (XVI, 457 p.)

Details

Subject(s)
Editor
Series
Summary note
Methods of scientific investigation can be divided into two categories: they are either macroscopic or microscopic in nature. The former are generally older, classical methods where the sample as a whole is studied and various local prop­ erties are deduced by differentiation. The microscopic methods, on the other hand, have been discovered and developed more recently, and they operate for the most part on an atomistic scale. Glancing through the shelves of books on the various scientific fields, and, in particular, on the field of physical metallurgy, we are surprised at how lit­ tle consideration has been given to the microscopic methods. How these tools provide new insight and information is a question which so far has not at­ tracted much attention. Similar observations can be made at scientific confer­ ences, where the presentation of papers involving microscopic methods is often pushed into a far corner. This has led users of such methods to organize their own special conferences. The aim of this book is to bridge the present gap and encourage more interaction between the various fields of study and selected microscopic meth­ ods, with special emphasis on their suitability for investigating metals. In each case the principles of the method are reviewed, the advantages and successes pointed out, but also the shortcomings and limitations indicated.
Notes
"With 253 Figures."
Bibliographic references
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Language note
English
Contents
  • 1. Concerning Methods
  • 1.1 Descriptive Methods
  • 1.2 Abbreviated Methods
  • 1.3 Name-Tag Methods
  • 2. Scanning Acoustic Microscopy
  • 2.1 Principle of Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM)
  • 2.2 The Image Contrast of Solids in the Reflection Scanning Acoustic Microscope; V(z)-Curves
  • 2.3 Examples of Practical Applications of Reflection Scanning Acoustic Microscopy
  • 2.4 Outlook
  • References27
  • 3. High-Resolution Electron Microscopy
  • 3.1 Background
  • 3.2 Basic Principles of High-Resolution Electron Microscopy
  • 3.3 Applications
  • 3.4 Outlook
  • References
  • 4. Field Ion Microscopy
  • 4.1 Principles and Techniques
  • 4.2 Illustrative FIM Studies
  • 5. X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction
  • 5.1 Diffraction of Neutrons and X-Rays by Poly- and Non-Crystalline Alloys
  • 5.2 Experimental Techniques
  • 5.3 Applications
  • 6. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure
  • 6.1 Theory
  • 6.2 Experimental Techniques
  • 6.3 Analysis
  • 6.4 Experimental Applications
  • 7. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
  • 7.1 Historical
  • 7.2 Basic Principles
  • 7.3 Related Methods
  • 7.4 Applications
  • 7.5 Recent Developments
  • 8. Auger Electron Spectroscopy
  • 8.1 History
  • 8.2 Principles
  • 8.3 The Instrument
  • 8.4 Related Methods
  • 8.5 Applications
  • 8.6 Future Developments
  • 9. Positron Annihilation
  • 9.1 Background
  • 9.2 Basic Principles
  • 9.4 Applications
  • 9.5 Conclusions and Outlook
  • 10. Muon Spectroscopy
  • 10.1 Basic Principles of the Experimental Techniques
  • 10.2 The Depolarization Functions
  • 10.3 Diffusion Studies by ?+ SR
  • 10.4 Magnetic Studies by ?+ SR
  • 10.5 Conclusions
  • 11. Perturbed Angular Correlation
  • 11.1 Background
  • 11.2 Principles
  • 11.3 Detection of Hyperfine Fields
  • 11.4 Radioactive Probes, Preparation and Techniques
  • 11.5 Applications
  • 11.6 Future Developments and Conclusions
  • 12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
  • 12.1 Introductory Comments
  • 12.2 Physical Background of an NMR Experiment — Hyperfine Interactions
  • 12.3 Basic NMR Experiment — Principles and Setup
  • 12.4 NMR Outputs — Microscopic Origin
  • 12.5 Applications — Structural Investigations
  • 12.7 Conclusion and Outlook
  • 13. Mössbauer Spectroscopy
  • 13.1 History
  • 13.2 Principles
  • 13.3 Mössbauer Isotopes
  • 13.4 Methodology
  • 13.5 Hyperfine Interactions
  • 13.5.1 Isomer Shift
  • 13.6 Relativistic Effects
  • 13.7 Time-Dependent Effects
  • 13.8 Applications
  • 13.9 Outlook
  • Additional References with Titles.
ISBN
3-642-46571-4
Doi
  • 10.1007/978-3-642-46571-0
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